Evaluate two psychological treatments for phobic disorders (16 marks). One of the psychological treatments for phobic disorders is behavioural therapy. Behavioural therapies aim to replace maladaptive behaviours with adaptive ones by using conditioning techniques. Systematic desensitisation (SD) is the main behaviourist treatment for phobias. It was developed by Wolpe (1958), SD is based on classical conditioning, with patients learning in stages to associate fear responses with feelings of calm, rather than previous associations between phobic objects, situations or fear.
The teacher was told that the object of the experiment was to study the effects of punishment on learning. They are also told that their role in the experiment was to read word lists to the learner and the learner must remember the second word from a list of word pairs they had read earlier. If the learner got the answer wrong, then the teacher was told to administer shocks, for each answer that the learner got wrong, and the shocks had to increase in intensity. The teacher is unaware of the fact that the learner is actually an actor, and receives no shock. The experiments, involving the Undergrad students from Yale, resulted in 60
The experiment showed that once the dogs became accustomed to hearing a particular noise at mealtime, they began to salivate automatically whenever they heard it. The dogs would salivate when they heard the noise whether they were given food or not. This experiment showed that behaviors are reactions to stimuli. This theory also relies on the belief that positive and negative reinforcement can be used to train people and animals to behave a certain way. Behaviorists seek to discover how environmental stimuli control behavior.
Generally dogs in response to a bowl of food salivated however they wanted to see if they could pair this with a bell ringing. So every time they dogs received their food the bell rang and in the end when the bell rang the dogs salivated because they already associated the bell ring with their food. Operant conditioning however is the course of altering behaviour by receiving rewards and punishments. In this experiment they made a cat learn that every time it gets out of the box that it was placed in got a reward. This means it learnt doing the same escape routine because it knew the consequences were rewarding.
Then a scenario will be use to explain an example of classical conditioning. In the 20th century, Ivan Pavlov had unexpectedly come across the philosophy of classical conditioning, when he was researching his dogs’ digestion system. During his research he realized that the dogs tend to salivate to the sight of food, so then he paired the food with a bell to see if the
The scenario will be explained and a chart will be complied that will demonstrate how classical conditioning applies to this scenario. Classical Conditioning Theory Ivan Petrovich Pavlov is the founder of the classical conditioning theory. Pavlov, a Russian psychologist was studying the secretion of stomach acids and salivation of dogs when they were presented with different kinds and different amounts of food (Feldman, 2010). While doing so, Pavlov noticed that the amount of salivation would often increase when the dogs had not eaten any food. The mere presence of the person who supplied the food or the footsteps of that person would stimulate the dogs and more stomach acid would be produced (Feldman, 2010).
For example, if someone gets drunk from drinking vodka and this leads them to being sick, they learn to associate being sick with vodka and therefore avoid drinking vodka to stop the negative behaviour occurring. Pavlov’s dogs learnt to associate the bell with food therefore when they heard the bell they began to salivate as they knew that food was coming as they had learnt to associate them two things. Operant conditioning is behaviour learnt through reinforcement and punishment. If behaviour is reinforced then it is likely
In the adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Jim, a nigger at Miss Watson’s home, listened to two white children, Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn even though he doubted their thoughts at first. In chapter 38, when Tom and Huck were trying to save Jim, Tom suggested Jim to “raise flower with tears” and “to keep rattlesnakes and rats” in the prison. Jim didn’t believe he should do that at first, but after their conversation, he said “he was sorry and wouldn’t behave so no more” (Twain, 242). While Jim was obeying these youngsters’ commands, Huckleberry Finn, on the other hand, didn’t listen to instructions at all. When Miss Watson, a widow who was willing to take care of him, encouraged him to pray for what he wanted, where she meant by blessing, love etc., Huck questioned about prayers and couldn’t understand how prayers work to give him what he would like (Twain, 39).
George’s dominance is also shown through a simile, “Like a terrier who doesn’t want to bring a ball back to his master” where George is the master and Lennie is the terrier. At the bunkhouse, we find words such as “white-washed” and “unpainted” contrast to the Edenic setting at the beginning. Foreshadowing is used throughout the book, such as how Lennie dies the same way as Candy’s
Running head: FUNCTIONAL PSYCHOPATH The Recipe for the Functional Psychopath Cannon University Counseling 646 Abstract This paper will discuss the existence of the psychopath in its many forms. It will define the psychopath, discuss the subgroups, treatment possibilities, the historical and fictional examples over our history and the many contributions psychological professionals have made over the last century to the understanding of this disorder. This paper will also detail the differences in the brain structure of psychopaths, discuss how one would go about discovering a young psychopath in the making and spiritual implications of this disorder. Introduction