In Greek and Roman culture, loyalty and honor are important concepts in one's life that are to be personally and publicly explored. In The Iliad by Homer and The Aeneid, written by Virgil, these ideas are presented through the views of two epic heroes and their roles surrounding the Trojan war during its final year. The Iliad is an epic poem originally intended to be heard by audiences as opposed to being read. Translated and put into written form, it is today regarded as being one of the most important primary Greek epics of its time during the eight century BC. The Aeneid, however, holds its roots within the Roman culture of around 20 BC, and is considered a secondary epic.
Virgil(Publius Vergilius Maro) wrote the Aeneid between 1-0 BCE in Rome, what is believed to be northern Italy or Greece. The main purpose of this epic poem was to act as a propaganda for the Roman Empire and to show the divinity of the lineage of Octavius(Augustus) who was supposedly Virgil’s contemporary. The Aeneid owes a lot of its content to the Odyssey and shows many differences as well, mainly because of the different motivations of both characters. Aeneas is the subject of Virgil’s epic The Aeneid. Dr. Gwilym Jones divides Virgil’s work into what he calls the Odysseic and Iliadic halves.
Ovid’s most famous work however was the Metamorphoses. Written in dactylic hexameter and styled like an epic, the 15-book Metamorphoses consists of creation stories and myths about Rome and its past. It is most widely known and celebrated work. Ovid’s life got more difficult as it progressed. He was exiled to Tomis in 8 AD where he wrote about his depression and desire to return to Rome (Tristia and Epistulae ex Ponto).
* Between 86 and 96 BCE, Martial composes Books One thru Ten of Epigrams. * Juvenal’s Satires were published from 100-130 BCE. * Juvenal later died in 140 AD. Major Authors (all information taken from Hooley’s Roman Satire and from Cooley’s “Roman Satirists”) * Lucilius, the father of satire, wrote several books such as Books 26-30. Later he writes Books 1-21 and Books 22-25.
It seems that Virgil is inviting the reader to recourse back to Homer in order to highlight the contrast between Aeneas and Homeric heroes like Thetis in the Illiad. This analogy makes the reader aware of the distinctive nature of Aeneas as an epic hero when compared to those of the Greek era, and during books one to four, Virgil seems keen to portray how prone
The ancient city of Troy was roughly where the city of Truva is now located in Turkey. The first ruins were found in the 1800’s and excavations are still taking place. There is evidence that the ancient city was destroyed by war and rebuilt seven times. The Iliad was first written down about 800 BC. There have been many translations since.
The Hellene man deceives Xerxes by providing him with a false plan: once night falls, the Greek army would set sail by a route which offered escape. Xerxes, with no thought of being deceived, planned accordingly. This in turn, made his men tired and ultimately led to his armies defeat. Therefore, the play “The Persians” is an important source for the study of Greek history as it provides details on the Battle of Salamis. However, the reliability is questionable as parts of the play may have been exaggerated or fabricated, as it was a play written to win a prize.
Throughout The <br>Iliad, Achilles went through some significant changes that affected himself, as well as the <br>Achaeans and Trojans. He began a hero and ended a tragic hero. <br> The Trojan War is vital to Greek mythology and provides a backdrop for <br>discussion. Before the war even started, however, it was known by all Trojans and <br>Achaeans that Achilles was the best fighter. He was the hero of all fighters.
Livy’s narration can be seen as important to our understanding of Roman Literature in that it gives an understanding of the background of Rome beginning from its foundation. Livy begins his narration by stating that Rome was founded by the twins Remus and Romulus who were the children of Rhea and the god of war mars. They founded Rome in 753 B.C. these two quarrelled about the city boundaries and eventually Remus was killed by Romulus became the first king of Rome. This belief that they were descended from a god according to legend gave them justification of their right to rule and eventually this divine ancestry that they believed they came from gave them justification to conquer other nations.
Repetition in the Aeneid Ancient Rome was highly dependent on repetition; a repetition of Greek Architecture, repetition of the Olympian Gods, and even a repetition of Greek Literature. This is not to say that Roman culture was a cheap knock-off of the Greece, for Romans strived to not only match Greece’s rich culture but to rise above it. Virgil’s The Aeneid is a fine example of the manner in which Romans aimed to glorify Rome by imitating Greece. The theme of repetition is crucial to Virgil’s poem, particularly in Book VI, where history, myths, and tales reoccur or foretell an occurrence. Near the beginning of Book VI, we enter a temple dedicated to Apollo, and upon entering, our narrator reiterates the history that gave rise to this temple.