# Teaching How To Count And An Introduction To Arithmetic Essay

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Maria Montessori; The Discovery of the Child Summary, chp. 18 Teaching How to Count and an Introduction to Arithmetic &ldquo;Sensorial training is of great importance in learning the basic of arithmetic. Montessori has a variety of materials for this purpose, thus allowing the child to become familiar with numbers at an early age. The idea of quantity is inherent in all the Montessori arithmetic material and the conception of identity and difference in the sensorial exercises is built up from recognition of identical objects and gradation of similar one.&rdquo; (Hainstock E., 1986:97) When we begin the direct teaching of number, we choose the long rods, dividing then into ten spaces, coloured alternately red and blue. When the rods have been placed in order of gradation we teach the child the numbers in three periods lesson. An obstacle to counting at an early period of live for the child is when he is confronted with quantities corresponding to the numbers. He can&rsquo;t understand why, if the hand has five fingers, he should say of this same object: &rdquo;1, 2, 3, 4, 5.&rdquo; The exactness and concreteness of a child&rsquo;s mind needs clear and precise help. There they are judged mathematically and this provides an intension to arithmetic. When numerical rods are given to children, we see that even the smallest take a lively interest in counting. When a child has begun to read and write, he finds it quite easy to learn the figures which stand for numbers. We give the children cards bearing the numbers in sandpaper at the same time that we give the letters of the alphabet. By tracing the figures with their fingers, they learn how to write them and they also learn their names. Although the rods are the principal help given to a child so that he can begin arithmetic, same other materials are also used. First we can mention the tray of spindles which