Teaching Essay

4000 WordsAug 1, 201416 Pages
Chapter 1: What is language? Linguistics: the scientific study of a language. Discovering scientific rules by the following process: 1. Question is formed in the mind. 2. Hypothesis 3. Gathering data (experimenting) 4. Theory If the hypothesis is proved, then we’ll have the theory but if it is rejected, we’ll have nothing. Linguist: a scientist who studies languages. Sociology + linguistics = sociolinguistics Neurology + linguistics = neurolinguistics Language: is the body of knowledge about syntax, semantics, and phonology. Language is abstract, mental, and primarily spoken. Language: 1. Competence, 2. Constitutive, 3. syntax 1. Competence rule: is the unconscious body of knowledge about sounds, meaning and syntax which resides in all human beings’ minds. Competence is abstract. 2. Constitutive rule: are fundamental rules which are necessary for all phenomena to exist. Constitutive is concrete. 3. Syntax: is the set of principles according to which words are put together to make sentences. Speech: is the physical representation of language which is physical and concrete. Speech: 1. Performance, 2. Regulative, 3. grammar 1. Performance: is the use of language in daily life. 2. Regulative: is the concrete form of constitutive rules. 3. Grammar: is the knowledge speakers have about the units and rules of their language. A good grammar qualification should be: 1. Detailed 2. Precise (to the point and exact), 3.unambiguous (clear), 4. Creativity of native speakers, 5. Productivity of language Creativity of native speakers: the ability to make infinite number of sentences out of finite number of rules. Because of creativity, we have lots of sentences and grammar. Creativity is the main difference between human language and animal language. Productivity of language: to have the capacity to make it possible to the existence of infinite number of

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