According to (Learning Theories.com, 2008), “Erikson’s psychosocial theory of development considers the impact of external factors, parents and society on personality development from childhood to adulthood. According to Erikson’s theory, every person must pass through a series of eight interrelated stages over the entire life cycle.” The eight stages to psychosocial development in one person’s whole life are Trust vs. Mistrust, Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt, Initiative vs. Guilt, Industry vs. Inferiority, Identity vs. Role Confusion, Intimacy vs. Isolation, Generativity vs. Stagnation, and Integrity vs. Despair (Cervone & Pervin, 2010).
Running head: PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT PAPER Psychosocial Stage of Development Paper Name University of Phoenix PSYCH 504 Instructor December 18, 2011 Psychosocial Stage of Development Paper Erik Erikson was a psychoanalyst who developed the theory of psychosocial development. Erikson believed that the achievements and failures of early childhood stages influence the later stages whereas later stages modify and transform earlier ones (Erikson, 2011). Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial theory explains eight developmental stages in which “physical, cognitive, instinctual, and sexual changes combine to generate an internal crisis whose resolution results in either psychosocial regression or growth and the development of specific virtues” (Erikson, 2011, par. 1). Included in this paper will be an explanation of the eight stages of Erikson’s psychosocial theory, and the current stages of development that I am currently in.
Erikson’s theory includes eight stages, which I will state each stage without details. * Stage 1 trust versus Mistrust * Stage 2 Autonomy Versus Shame and Doubt * Stage 3 Initiative Versus Guilt * Stage 4 Industry Versus Inferiority (Child Development Principles and Theories) Piaget's theory of cognitive development described and explained the changes in logical thinking of children and adolescents. Piaget proposed that children proceed through four stages based on maturation and experience. Piaget's theory is guided by assumptions of how learners interact with their environment and how they integrate new knowledge and information into existing knowledge. Briefly, he proposed that: * children are active learners who construct knowledge from their environments * they learn through assimilation and accommodation, and complex cognitive development occurs through equilibration * the interaction with physical and social environments is key for cognitive development * development occurs in stages (Education Portal) Vygotsky's cultural-historical theory focused on the role of culture and
• Freud (Psychoanalytic):- He believed that the personality develops through a series of stages. The idea that early experiences affect adult life has importance for anyone caring for a child. He proposed that individuals are driven by motives and emotions of which they are largely unaware. He believed that we shaped by early experiences in life. Freudian thinking is deeply embedded in our culture and constantly influences our view of human nature, but his ideas are now widely
Attaining insight into the influence of my early childhood focusing on Erik Erikson's stages of Trust vs. Mistrust, Identity vs. role confusion and Intimacy vs. Isolation will shed light on the how and why of the characteristics and behaviours of my current relationship. Erik Erikson (June 1902-May 1994) was an American developmental psychologist born in Germany. Erikson had the belief that during the life of all human beings, they will undergo eight major psychosocial stages. Even if the conflict of a certain stage is or is not effectively resolved, the person is influenced by both genetic motivation and the strains of society in subsequent stages.
L. Rowton My Early Childhood Education Autobiography I definitely agree that the degree of exposure that a child has to education while growing up has a huge impact on views one has later in life regarding early childhood education. For example, people such as parents, older siblings, teachers, babysitters, daycare providers, etc. can all provide different learning experiences for the child. Being around other children can also provide extremely valuable experiences for a child, as far as learning goes, and influencing social behavior as well. A child who does not have positive experiences with their early childhood education may suffer both academically and socially later on in life, lacking the proper groundwork toward a good, solid education, I believe it it extremely important to instill a positive outlook in a child regarding education and learning in general.
Linking theory with practice enables practitioners to plan age appropriate activities and experiences for the children in their care and thus enhance their development and help them to acquire new skills and knowledge. In this essay the author will discuss the following theorists whose work has been very influential in the field of childcare. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), Lev Vygotsky (1896-1943), Jean Piaget (1896-1980), B.F. Skinner (1904-1990). Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Sigmund Freud’s main area of study was emotional and personality development, he was the first psychologist to recognise the importance of the conscious and unconscious mind. Freud’s work is considered important because he showed that childhood experiences and relationships significantly influence the development of personality in later life, (Beaver et al 2002).
The psychodynamic approach assumes that adult behaviour reflects complex dynamic interactions between the conscious and unconscious mind, which are present from birth. Freud, the founder of this approach, believed that our behaviour is powerfully affected by the processes within our conscious mind and psychological disorders in adulthood, are due to problems with we have encountered in our childhood, that have not been solved. Freud purposed that personality is made up of three parts. These parts are the id, superego and ego. He also suggested that our personality is shaped in different times of our childhood, which is known as the psychosexual development.
Erikson’s theory entailed eight stages, which are “defined by conflict, which leads to opportunities for personal growth” (Essa, 2007, p.128). Conflicts are a combination of both the person and relationships with others, and focuses on social task that need to emerge in each of the eight stages for a healthy development (Essa, 2007). In his theory, he suggests that personality continues to develop in a series of eight stages throughout the life span. Stage 1 is Trust vs. Mistrust (birth through 18months) during this stage the infant develops trust. Stage 2 is Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (18 months to three years).
Erikson believed that there are eight developmental stages in a person’s life, that at each stage a person is challenged by a psychosocial crisis and that their personality is shaped on how they deal with those psychosocial crises (Norman 2003). Erikson’s claims that there are eight developmental stages in a person’s lifespan, each stage being a heavy turning point with can lead to many outcomes. The first stage is called Trust v Mistrust which starts at birth and ends when the child is year old, when the infant is fully dependant on their caregivers for basic necessities and as well as forming the initial attachment. This stage determines whether the infant can trust the environment that is now lives in. During the second and third year of a child’s life is where he/she are faced with certain responsibilities, at this stage the child begins to learn how to dress, feed, bathe and use the toilet, where they become responsible for their efforts to achieve goals.