1. How would you define “Frozen Preferences” and what is the impact of this concept on strategy formulation, alternative analysis and recommendation? • Managers don’t like to make major strategic changes once decisions have been made (except in the case of overwhelming evidence) as they will look unprepared and ineffective and their creditability is damaged • Frozen preferences o Management has made a decision and over time analysis shows that their decision may not be the best choice o However they feel compelled to maintain their current strategy even if it is not the best course of action. • As management preferences becomes a larger part of the organization (personnel changes, budgets etc), it becomes more and more difficult to change direction. o A tendency to avoid reversing changes even if it was not the best choice o In reality, past expenditures are sunk costs and the organization should use a clean slate to look at new choices, but to the manager, this will come at great personal loss.
Research and analysis Negative reinforcement is one of major skills for project managers. This part will research and analysis how the project managers’ negative reinforcement and threats can influence the project management. This part also analysis why the threats are an imperfect way to motivate performance. 2.1
Closed ended questions limit the user’s ability to provide detail in their answer as these are usually multiple choices, true or false, or function on a rating system. As an analyst working to develop a better system for Riordan, it is important to ask open ended questions as they “are usually used to probe for information when you cannot anticipate all possible responses or when you do not know the precise question to ask.” (University of Phoenix,
Also, these two factors can have impacts on the behaviour and rationality of the decision maker. Simon also believed that the limitations of human rationality exists in the form of discrepancy between the capacity of processing information of human and the complexity of the world. He characterised bounded rationality as: “[…] limits of human capability to calculate, the sever deﬁciencies
Without being able to communicate, direct and inspire people like leaders do, organizations would struggle to be successful as they would not be able to do effectively communicate visions and help overcome hurdles to the best of their ability. To help identify what makes effective leadership several studies have been conducted and theories have been developed to help understand the fundamentals behind it. One central aspect of leadership is the contingency theories of leadership. Contingency theories refer to leaders altering leadership styles depending on the particular circumstances. The relationship between leadership style and effectiveness suggested that, under condition a, style x would be appropriate, whereas style y was more suitable for condition b, and style z for condition c (Robbins et al 2011).
* Describe and critically evaluate the key differences between process theories of motivation and content theories of motivation? * Critically evaluate the accuracy of the claim that: “since there is no one best way of leading, managers must adjust their leadership style in response to pressures deriving from the organizational situation in which they are working”. * What is leadership? With reference to relevant theories of leadership, critically evaluate the claim that there is ‘one best
ABSTRACT This paper has sets of two questions it addressed. The first part of the academic essay defines both transactional leadership and transformational leadership and throws more light on their individual attribute which makes up what a contemporary leader should display in the name of Full Range Leadership. The second aspect of the paper work deals with the weaknesses contemporary organizations face in the charismatic and great man style of leadership. This study will examine how contemporary transformational leadership practitioners have mitigated these weaknesses. INTRODUCTION Transactional leadership theory takes a behavioral approach to leadership by basing it on a system of rewards and punishments (Bass & Avolio 1993).
Different Types of Leadership for Project Management The types of leadership or leadership styles are considered as the possible success factors for project managers. It is a skill being ignored in training as it is not easy to measure the leadership style of a person in the situations of training. The behaviour of leadership can be considered as autocratic, democratic, and bureaucratic while being dependent on the situation (Nixon, et al., 2012). The following leadership styles are common in the domain of project management: • Autocratic: The manager of a project is expected to make the decisions while dominating the team members. This approach results in the passive resistance from the members of teams while requiring the consistent pressure as well as direction from the leader for getting things done.
In other words, they answer the question What drives behaviour? It is important to remember that the following are theories, none of which have been conclusively shown to be valid. Nonetheless, they are helpful in providing a contextual framework for dealing with individuals Process theory is a commonly used form of scientific research study in which events or occurrences are said to be the result of certain input states leading to a certain outcome (output) state, following a set process. Another theory that attempts to explain human behavior is Content theory. Process theory holds that if an outcome is to be duplicated, so too must the process which originally created it, and that there are certain constant necessary conditions for the outcome to be reached.
Other qualitative data collection method under Qualitative Design includes Participant Observation and focus group. The following are challenges faced with participant observation and the strategy to be deployed to overcome this. • Time consumption is a big challenge and this is mitigated by involving researchers who already possess a solid base of cultural awareness of the region or ethnography under study to be among the data collection team. • Challenge of data documentation and this is mitigated by strict discipline and diligence to expand researcher recorded thought or observation. • The objectivity in documenting researcher observation because this process is inherently subjective.