Individuals do this to make the pain go away which ultimately they really just defense mechanisms (Gottdiener, Murawski, & Kucharski, 2008). “According to psychoanalytic conflict theory, defense mechanisms are activated when the individual experiences any form of displeasure, especially anxiety or depressive affect” (Brenner, 1982). Failures of ego control are related to individuals with substance use disorders. “Ego control refers to the efforts of the individual to control thoughts, emotions, impulses and ability to perform tasks and attention processes” (Baumeister & Vohs, 2004, p. 2). The article also addresses the result of consistent failures in ego control.
What is ‘Attributional’ therapy in your own words (5) 1 Cognitive Behavioural Therapy is a form of psychotherapy developed from a combination of cognitive therapy and behavioural therapy. The aim of CBT is to change unhealthy/faulty thinking and behaviours. The approach is based on the idea that our thoughts cause our feelings and the resulting behaviours rather than external events. By identifying and challenging unhealthy or faulty thinking patterns and beliefs the thinking patterns can be replaced by more rational and healthy alternatives. 2 CBT can be used with many different problem areas including depression, anxiety, anger and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).
I have also outlined some of the key concepts and techniques employed when using C.B.T., its educational nature and its strengths and limitations. “If we wish to change the sentiments, it is necessary before all to modify the idea which has produced (them), and to recognise either that it is not correct in itself or that it does not touch our interests. – Paul Dubois”. (Beck 1976, page 213). PHILOSOPHICAL PRINCIPLES & KEY CONCEPTS Aaron T. Beck developed his approach known as Cognitive Behavioural Therapy as a result of his work and observations with depressed clients.
Abstract An ideal form of the therapeutic process for individual counseling is comprised of techniques and theories taken from the Psychodynamic Approach, Cognitive-Behavioral Approach, Person-Centered Approach and behavior modification techniques that are found in Operant Conditioning. These individual counseling techniques were chosen based on how effective and relevant to the client, they were deemed to be. Techniques taken from the psychodynamic approach is to allow the client to become conscious of all unconscious or subconscious concerns through the use of transference and working alliance. Techniques taken from the cognitive-behavioral approach is to help the client identify any irrational beliefs and thinking that is the cause of the client’s emotional disturbance. In the person centered approach, the therapy focuses on an important human characteristic - the client’s natural ability for growth and development, through the use of self actualization.
However, one must not totally disclaim behaviourist principles of conditioning, but instead acknowledge that both classical and operant conditioning have greatly aided our understanding of how anxiety disorders are synthesised in humans and how adults can effectively parent and regulate the behaviour of their children. Classical conditioning is the notion identified with John B.Watson which some would argue clearly demonstrates human behaviour and learning. To outline; classical conditioning is the understanding that human behaviour is shaped and maintained through making an association between one stimulus and another(Psychology 8th Edition Gleitman) . In addition a completely neutral stimulus is presented to the subject where at first there is no reaction. However, when this neutral stimulus is presented and paired with a traumatic object or event, the fear is acquired and exacerbated (Mineka & Zinbarg) .
Non-direct regression is where the client regresses to recall memories of events that they believe are significant. Esoteric regression, sometimes referred to as past life regression, is where a client regresses beyond the start of their current life to recall memories from previous existences; undertaking this type of regression can lead to clients recalling false memories. Spontaneous regression, as the term suggests, occurs when a client, of their own volition, recalls suppressed emotions/memories that are relevant to resolving their current problem. Direct, non-direct and spontaneous types of regression are the most appropriate in evaluating the role of regression in clinical hypnotherapy. The focus of this piece is to investigate the justification of the application of regression in hypnotherapy in the absence of extensive, credible scientific research.
When a person suffers with psychological distress, the way in which they interpret situations becomes skewed, which in turn has a negative impact on the actions they take. CBT aims to help people become aware of when they make negative interpretations, and of behavioral patterns which reinforce the distorted thinking. Cognitive Therapy helps people to develop alternative ways of thinking and behaving which reduce the psychological distress. Cognitive behavioral Therapy is, in fact, an umbrella term for many different therapies that share some common elements. Two of the earliest forms of Cognitive behavioral Therapy were Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), developed by Albert Ellis in the 1950s, and Cognitive Therapy, developed by Aaron T. Beck in the 1960s.
Part I Different Therapeutic Approaches Listed below are the therapeutic approaches that can be taken in treating a client if the specialist in question assumes them. The client in question needs assistance for the extreme fear that prevents this person from functioning normally in relation to the opposite sex. Psychoanalyst As a psychoanalyst the expert will work on a number of assumptions like that this problem emanates from the clients unconscious thoughts and the fear that he portrays is as a result of hidden problems. In addition, the expert will assume that there concerns that were not addressed in the course of the growing of the client and that treatment will involve facing and dealing with these issues. The expert will let the client relax completely and give revelations of what he went through during his upbringing and what he dreams about.
Anticipatory stress is another factor this paper will focus on as it reduces one’s decision-making ability. Regarding the link between stress and its effects on the body, researchers have discovered a peptide located in the brain called orexin (hypocretin) that, with proper testing, could soon provide a treatment for stress and depression. Researchers began studying orexin further when they discovered the substantial link between the systems affected by stress and those affected by the orexin system. “The relationship between orexin and stress is noteworthy, given that chronic stress is a reliable predictor of depression, and may be necessary for establishment of the disorder.” (Arendt, 2013). Stress serves as an activator to orexin neurons in the hypothalamus, but orexinergic receptors are located throughout the brain.
On the other hand, people who use emotion-focused coping strategy reduce emotional reaction without attempting to solve the underlying problem. There are 2 kinds of strategies under emotion-focused coping. The first one would be behavioral strategies, examples include engaging in physical exercise and using alcohol or other drugs. Another one would be cognitive strategies, examples include setting the problem aside temporarily and reappraisal, which means to reinterpret the situation to make it seems less threatening. The aim of our research is to investigate HKU students’ experience of stress and their coping strategies.