Synthesis of N-Butyl Bromide and T-Pentyl Chloride

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Experiment 11B: Isolation of Caffeine from a Tea Bag Abstract The objective of this experiment is to successfully extract pure caffeine from tea leaves. This experiment isolates the tea leaves within the Lipton tea bag and the mass of the caffeine within the leaves. Using isolation, extraction, and sublimation techniques, it is possible to obtain pure caffeine. The amount of pure caffeine recovered from this experiment was .0081g. Because the tea bag original weight was 55mg or .055g, the weight percentage recovery of this experiment was 14.7%. Introduction Caffeine composes 5% of the leaf material weight in pure tea leaves. It is classified as an alkaloid, meaning that it is a naturally occurring compound composed mainly of Nitrogen atoms and possesses the properties of an amine base. Amine bases are a common product of Nitrogen metabolism in plants. Caffeine more specifically belongs to the Xanthine family or alkaloids. Xanthines are known for their use as stimulants. They stimulate the Central Nervous System in turn causing heightened alertness and increased energy. Additionally, caffeine, falling under the Xanthine family, is also known to act as a diuretic, increases heart rate, and raises blood pressure. Due to these classifications and symptoms it is important to moderate the amount of caffeine ingested. Taking in too much caffeine can lead to shaking, moodiness, insomnia and anxiety. Caffeine in its natural form is found as white crystals. It is not naturally soluble in water, which is why the temperature is manipulated and increased in order to extract it from the tea leaves. It can also be extracted from the combination of uric acid. Along with coffee, tea is the most common natural source of caffeine. To successfully extract caffeine from tea leaves it’s best to use tannin. The term tannin denotes a class of compounds that have specific

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