Synthesis of an Alkyl Halide

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Synthesis of an Alkyl Halide ------------------------------------------------- ABSTRACT ------------------------------------------------- The aim of the experiment was to synthesize the alkyl halide tert-buttyl chloride through a nucleophilic substitution reaction between tert-butyl alcohol and hydrochloric acid, which is a strong acid. Tert-butyl alcohol, being a tertiary alcohol, assured that the reaction would proceed without the aid of a Lewis acid. A relatively low yield of only 13.89% or 1.3552grams was obtained from the theoretical 9.7541grams of product. This low yield was concluded to come from some avoidable and some unavoidable errors that may have occurred while the students were performing the procedures. It was concluded through the experiment that it is possible to produce tert-butyl chloride from alcohols and hydrogenated halides. This conclusion is significant since the process is commonly used in the production of alkyl halides, which itself is a common component of many products used daily. Introduction Alcohols are the most common starting point for the synthesis of alkyl halides, as was also done in this experiment. The objective of the experiment was to successfully synthesize tert-butyl chloride from tert-butyl alcohol and hydrochloric acid (HCl) using the methods described in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory Manual. Alkyl halides are organic compounds, which have had one or more of their hydrogen atoms replaced by halogen atoms. They are also known as halogenoalkanes or simply haloalkanes. Some of their commercial uses include solvents, freons, anaesthetics, and pesticides. The intermolecular forces between alkyl halides are dipole-dipole interactions, not hydrogen bonding. An increase in molecular weight would mean an increase in the boiling point of the alkyl halide. There are many reactions that will lead to the
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