Title : Reaction of Carboxylic Acids Objective : To Determine The Reaction of Carboxylic Acids Procedure : As referred to Lab manual. Results: A. Salt Formation |Compound |Solvent |Solubility | |Benzoic Acid |Cold Water |Partially soluble | |Benzoic Acid |10 % NaOH |Soluble | B. Salt Hydrolysis Sodium acetate solution changed the color of litmus from red to blue. C. Reaction With Sodium Carbonate Observation : A lot of gas bubbles was released.
Three tests will then be performed to examine the identity and purity of the synthesized aspirin. The first test will detect the presence of leftover salicylic acid in the synthesized aspirin. The second test uses melting point to evaluate the purity of the aspirin product. A compound that contains impurities will tend to melt over a range of temperatures and at temperatures lower than the fixed mp for the pure compound. The third test will utilize thin layer chromatography to evaluate the purity of the aspirin as well as testing for the presence of leftover salicylic acid or other by products of the reactions.
Phenolphthalein) is used to show the equivalence point has reached by changing colours. Titration experiments are used to determine the concentration of an acid or a base, if either acid or base concentration known, the other unknown concentration can be find out by measuring how much it takes to neutralize, which is a useful experiment. The Bronsted-Lawry theory about acid and base, describes as follows; an acid a proton (hydrogen ion) donor, a base is a proton (hydrogen ion) acceptor, or any component that can transfer proton to any other component is and acid and any component that accepts the proton is base. The theory says a substance can function as an acid only when a base is presented, and also other way round, a substance can only function as a base in the present of an acid. This theory consider a large
Reaction Scheme [pic] Although sulfanilic acid is insoluble in acid solutions, it is nevertheless necessary to carry out the diazotization reaction in an acid (HNO2) solution. This problem can be avoided by precipitating sulfanilic acid from a solution in which it is initially soluble. The precipitate is a fine suspension and reacts instantly with nitrous acid. The first step is to dissolve sulfanillic acid in basic solution. When the solution is acidified during diazotization to form nitrous acid, the sulfanilic acid is precipitated out of solution as a finely divided solid, which is immediately diazotized.
The dichloromethane is then separated from the mixture in the rotary evaporator. Figure 1: The structure of caffeine is very similar to those of purine bases (adenine and guanine) in DNA, therefore caffeine is a good substance to practice on for dealing with nucleic acids. Procedure Approximately 10g of tealeaves, CaCO3 (4.8g, 0.048 mol) and deionised H2O (100mL) is added into a beaker and boiled for 15 minutes. The mixture is then cooled to 20˚C and is filtrated using a Buchner funnel (vacuum filtration). The extraction process is when a solvent, dichloromethane (15mL) is added to the filtrate in a separatory funnel; the mixture is gently swirled together 3 times, and stopcock is released in between to vent the funnel.
Synthesis of Aspirin Abstract: Within this experiment, Acetylsalicylic acid, better known as Aspirin, is synthesized from the reaction of Acetic Anhydride, Salicylic acid, and Sulfuric acid (used a catalyst.) The procedure of the experiment itself employs vacuum filtration and recrystallization as methods of obtaining and purifying the product. The produced Aspirin is yielded as a relatively high amount in comparison to the theoretical yield. However, after employing Ferric Chloride testing and Melt-Temp comparisons, the purity of the product is seen to be rather low. The experimental procedure followed is ideal for production of an abundant, but relatively impure sample of Aspirin.
Three methods were discussed and proposed for the experiment. The use of acyl chloride is a method and also the use of acetic anhydride. The method used in this experiment is known as Fischer Esterification. The before methods are much more expensive which is way it is shunned away in organic chemistry unless the reagents need to be used for other reasons beyond the scope of this paper. The Fischer esterification works just as fine and is cheaper so why not.
This is called the shaking and venting procedure. This procedure allows the benzoic acid (benzoic is the solute) to establish an equilibrium between the two layers the organic layer and the aqueous layer. Benzoic acid, although it has dissolve in water, is not very soluble in water (it will only dissolve in water at elevated temperature). However, benzoic acid is more soluble in methylene chloride. That is why once you add the benzoic acid aqueous solution and the CH2Cl2 in the separatory funnel the benzoic acid moves from the aqueous layer into the methylene chloride organic layer.
This is because the less electronegative sodium has a weak Na-O bond and the oxygen is more easily given up to reacts with H+. Further along though, a strong S-O bond keeps this together and more H+ is generated. The amphoteric aluminium oxide has a bonding which is both ionic and covalent in nature. When these oxides are reacted with acids or bases, a neutralisation would occur with a salt and water produced. Aluminium oxide is amphoteric, meaning it react with both acid and
This standardized solution of sodium hydroxide can then be used to determine the concentration of acid in the sample of gastric juice. Acid-base titration is when a titration is carried out with a known volume of a strong acid which in this case is HCl, of unknown concentration, with a standard solution of a strong base NaOH. The reaction taking place is: HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) → NaCl(aq) + H2O(aq) A titration can be used to find the concentration of an acid in gastric juices because the acidity in the gastric juices is mainly caused by hydrochloric