WORKPLACE MOTIVATION (A-3)
It has been recently observed by Fortune (June 94) that the social contract between the employer and employee is changing. The whole issue of loyalty is evolving in a way that is quite alien to what we have witnessed for much of the 20th century. It appears that neither firms nor employees feel much responsibility to each other. It was noted in Chapter 2 that the current environment is an obstacle for many business mangers. Designing effective motivational strategies is becoming increasingly difficult and will continue to be so as long as workers and work remain so transient. While the impetus for the new social contract lies with senior administration, it is front-line managers who are exposed most to employee frustration.
Turning more directly to the subject of motivation, it is important to identify the objectives of this Chapter. A large number of quite differing theories will be examined. The intent is to expose the student to techniques he or she may use to motivate various employees. The techniques that work for one manager may not work for another manager whether or not they have the same employee or similar employees. Clearly, the techniques discussed in this Chapter are influenced significantly by the reality of individual differences.
It is also useful to recognize that managers seek (or should seek) to use motivational tools that enhance performance. One would expect that the motivated employee is able to accomplish more relative to those workers who lack motivation. Managers manage in order to meet organizational goals. To reach these goals, employees need to perform well. Performance, in-turn, is tied to motivation: the desire to achieve and to be energized.
However, it is now important to address some problems associated with the goal-driven managerial scenario noted above. First, some goals may be unreachable and this is often due to insufficient material resources, bad luck, poor...