Surface area is a principle concept related to many areas in biological functioning. Heat as well as substances can be transferred between and within the body and the environment. Explain the relationship between surface area and this transfer. Cells require nutrients and gasses such as Oxygen to move into them. They also require waste substances and gasses such as Carbon Dioxide to move out of them.
This means that they contribute to an animal’s ability to maintain its body temperature by homeostasis. This is more pronounced in animals that are adapted to arctic conditions. Often these animals are much larger and have a thicker layer of fat beneath the skin. The increased size this gives lowers the surface area to volume ratio resulting in a lower effective surface from which heat would be lost. Coupled with more insulation, this means the animal would need a lower respiration rate in order to survive, thus helping to preserve fuel sources.
This affected me during the bleep test because vasodilation allows more oxygenated blood to travel to the actively respiring muscle tissues. Other acute responses which occur to the musculoskeletal system during exercise include an increase in muscle pliability. If your muscles get warmer because of the contraction temperature is going to rise this makes them more pliable and reduces the risk of injury. Pliability is the stretchiness of the muscles. There is also an increase in the synovial fluid at the joint.
“Fibers that cannot be digested by bacteria in the large intestines are called insoluble fibers because they do not dissolve in water.” (Grosvenor & Smolin, 2006) High fiber diets can produce many benefits, including higher nutrient absorption levels, and better waste output. Diets that tend to lack in fiber or are high in insoluble fiber tend to cause gastrointestinal irritation and constipation. People that experience these symptoms should consider reviewing their fiber sources, and water consumption
Not only does past contain more calories but it also contains more unhealthy fat. It is also high in sodium. An average human needs a certain amount of salt in their body per day, however when eating fast food the person eats more salt then they are supposed to. Fast food also contains a lot of chemicals and additives that make the food not spoiled or look better. All the additives in our foods have been extensively tested before being added to our food, but it still makes sense to limit the amount of artificial chemicals we ingest.
The short legs of early hominids were not efficiant for long distance walking nor running at higher speeds. Through time hominids developed longer slimer legs that allowed them to walk longer distance for a longer duration of time. This enabled them to hunt vast distances or migrate towards a better source of food. The stocky muscular build of Neanderthals allowed them to thrive in a colder climate. They had thick bones which provide a stable base for more muscle which kept them warmer in the harsh climate.
In larger organisms, permeable, thin, flat structures have all the properties of efficient gas exchange surfaces but need water to prevent their dehydration and give them mechanical support. Since the solubility of oxygen in water is low, organisms that obtain their oxygen from water can maintain only a low metabolic rate. In small and thin organisms, the distance from gas exchange surface to the inside of the organism is short enough for diffusion of gases to be efficient. Diffusion gradients are maintained because gases are continually used up or produced. In larger organisms, simple diffusion is not an efficient way of transporting gases between cells in the body and the gas exchange surface.
Animals show two strategies for maintaining their body temperatures: endothermy and ectothermy. Birds and mammals are called endotherms because they make their own heat and keep a constant body temperature. All other animals, such as fishes, amphibians, and reptiles are called ectotherms because they get heat from the external environment. The difference between the two is endothermy requires more energy; therefore endotherms have to eat more food than ectotherms. Endothermy also lets animals live in many different habitats to help intense activity for longer periods of time.
Aquatic environments are generally split into three categories; fresh water, marine (salt water) and estuarine (a combination of salt and fresh water). The organisms that live in each of these environments have specific adaptations that allow them to respond to changes in their surrounds. Fish generally prefer either fresh water or salt water and are unable to cope with a change from one to the other. For example the cells in fresh water fish are saltier than the surrounding water, so due to osmosis (the diffusion of water through a semi-permeable membrane) water is constantly flowing into its body. For this reason fresh water fish require very efficient kidneys to remove all of the extra water, and methods of maintaining and collecting the salt lost through urination.
If the area around a cell has a higher water concentration it will gain water by osmosis. This is because the water molecules surrounding the potato cell are able to pass freely across the cell membrane in both directions; therefore more water will enter the potato than will leave it so it will swell up. Furthermore, if the area around the potato’s cells has a lower concentration of water than the cell will loose water by osmosis due to more water diffusing out through the partially permeable membrane than entering the cell, this will lead to a reduction in the size of the cell. When the concentration of water molecules in the potato is near equal to that of the area around it, the rate of osmosis will decline and the cell will stay the same size, as there is an equal amount of water entering the cell than there is leaving it. Below is a drawn diagram showing the process of osmosis.