The decisions made by the Supreme Court are the final
verdict for extreme cases, and most of there verdicts have
had an impact on the way we (Law Enforcement) do business
today. A good example of how Supreme Court decisions affect
the way we (Law Enforcement) do business today would be
Miranda vs. Arizona. This case created what we know today to
be the “Miranda rights”
In 1963, Ernesto Miranda was arrested in Phoenix, Arizona for stealing $8 from bank worker and charged with armed robbery. He already had a record for armed robbery, and a juvenile record including attempted rape, assault, and burglary. While in police custody he signed a written confession to the robbery, and to kidnapping and raping an 18-year-old woman 11 days before the robbery. After the conviction, his lawyers appealed, on the grounds that Miranda did not know he was protected from self-incrimination. Miranda was convicted of rape and kidnapping and sentenced to 20 to 30 years on both charges. Miranda's lawyer, Alvin Moore, appealed to the Arizona Supreme Court but the charges were upheld.
Chief Justice Warren, a former prosecutor, delivered
the opinion of the Court, ruling that due to the coercive
nature of custodial interrogation by police (to add to his
point, Warren controversially cited several police
training manuals), no confession could be admissible under
the Fifth Amendment self-incrimination clause and Sixth
Amendment right to an attorney unless a suspect had been
made aware of his rights and the suspect had then waived
them. As a result Miranda's conviction was overturned.
Miranda was retried, and this time the police did not
use the confession but called witnesses and used other
evidence. Miranda was convicted, and served 11 years.
Following the Miranda decision, the nation's police
departments were required to inform arrested persons of
their rights under the ruling, termed a Miranda...