Minimum wage increases an individual annual salary, bumping the employee into a higher marginal tax bracket. But positive effects from minimum wage increases are usually erased through higher marginal tax rates. Employees may also face a reduction in working hours. Businesses attempting to lower operating costs often reduce employee hours to save on payroll expenses.
First you can look at expansion into other markets. A company will only expand if the move will help make them more money overall. Now look at employment, companies only hire people as needed. When they are in season and the work output is needed, people will be hired. If they are out of season and output is down, less help is needed so layoffs will occur.
This greater demand leads to increases in both output and prices. The degree to which higher demand increases output and prices depend, in turn, on the state of the business cycle. If the economy is in recession, with unused productive capacity and unemployed workers, then increases in demand will lead mostly to more output without changing the price level. If the economy is at full employment, by contrast, a fiscal expansion will have more effect on prices and less impact on total output. According to the MPR, the unemployment rate was projected to continue to decline toward its longer-run normal level over the projection period (Monetary Policy Report,
Consumer price and producer price in 2009 to 2012 continue to drop and raise the price for consumers was not steady. The direction and magnitude of price change in the Producer Price Index for finished goods anticipates a similar change in the Consumer Price Index for all items. When this assumed relationship is contradicted by the actual movements of the two series. The answer is that conceptual and definitional differences between the PPI and CPI—differences which are consistent with the uses of the two measures—contribute to the differences in their price movements. A primary use of the PPI is to deflate revenue streams in order to measure real growth in output.
It helps me predict the effects of the business cycle (Seasons or GDP when income levels rise or fall) on my sales. Currently we are in a slowed economy. Therefore, we have more unemployment or people watching their money more carefully and are more interested in price shopping. g. You obtain this information the % change in quantity demanded divided by the % change in the consumer’s income. Necessity will drive the income demand first and then as necessities are met and money increases, then luxury item demands will begin to increase.
However, pensioners will be hit hard because the extra income they earn from saving will have dramatically reduced, making them worse off. On the other hand, savers may leave the pound for better interest rates in other countries (hot money), causing a fall in the demand for the pound. As a result the value of the pound will fall, making exports cheaper and there will be an injection of net exports. In conclusion, the impact of loose monetary policy will be beneficial to the economy because extra consumption and investment will cause AD to increase which will increase economic growth. However, it takes a long time for changes in interest rates to feed through to consumption and investment and by then the economy may have gotten worse.
Therefore, understanding exactly how monetary policies will affect the economy is extremely important. Monetary policies generally will raise or lower interest rates, which will ultimately affect individuals and business demand for goods and services. Unfortunately, many individuals do not understand the entire concept surrounding the Federal Reserve real interest rate. For example, any magnitude of decreasing the real rates will lower the cost of borrowing; this will increase investment spending, and influence individuals to buy durable goods. These items may consist of automotive, recreational vehicle, homes, and higher educational opportunities.
We also discussed elastic and inelastic and I learned there are two kinds that affect pricing. First is "price elasticity of demand [which] is the percentage change in quantity demanded divided by the percentage change in price [and] price elasticity of supply is the percentage change in quantity supplied divided by the percentage change in price" (Colander, 2010, p. 154). Applying these to real world scenarios and applications aided in understanding the
On one hand, it’s simply a supply and demand issue. As wages rise, the demand for labor decreases. In other words, employers will simply stop, decrease, or slow down their hiring. Economists estimate that a ten percent increase in the minimum wage relative to the prices of goods and services decreases total employment of those affected by one or two percent. If the minimum wage increases too much, then it could even force some smaller firms out of business.
These factors indicate current and future values of the short-term rates, therefore it creates issue with future long-term rates. Lower rates and positive economic activity adds value to the dollar in oversea markets. Households spending increases, businesses invest in property and equipment, and production leads to new hires. Conversely, when inflation is threatening, the Fed reduces the risk by shrinking the supply (Keynes,