Associate Level Material History of Rock Worksheet Write a 500- to 750-word explanation regarding the role of plate tectonics in the origin of igneous rocks. |Two cycles determine how mineral deposits are formed the rock cycle and the tectonic cycle. Heat from the Earth’s interior melts | |some of the rocks in the crust; the upper part of the lithosphere. Molten rocks lower in density than the surrounding cooler | |material rise toward the Earth’s surface and eventually cool and harden near to or on the surface. The composition, temperature, | |pressure, and cooling process of the molten material determine the minerals and rock types formed.
These types of lava are very viscous due to its high silica content. This is because the lava rises from the subduction zone through continental lithosphere which has a low density and is filled with air spaces containing gases which become incorporated into the lava. This very viscous lava often blocks off vents of volcanoes and when the pressure building up in the vent is eventually released, the top of the volcano can be blown off leaving a huge crater, such as in the 2002 eruption of Mount Etna in Sicily. When the two plates involved are oceanic, explosions tend to be less violent than this as the melted lithosphere which forms the lava is denser and so contains fewer gases. At constructive boundaries where plates are moving apart from one another, basaltic lava is erupted between the gaps.
A metamorphic rock is now formed. When additional heat and pressure are applied to the metamorphic rock, it will melt and create magma, thus beginning the rock cycle over again. There are three possible pathways that begin with granite that can be followed to complete the rock cycle. Rather than weathering over time and creating sediments, the igneous rock can remain buried and be subjected to high temperature and massive amounts of pressure. When this happens, the igneous is immediately transformed into a metamorphic rock and is the first possible pathway.
Also, both mechanical and chemical weathering aid in the development of spheroidal weathering. The first factor that influences the rate at which a rock is able to break down is the rocks characteristics. Rocks consist of minerals, which are solid substances that have their own unique chemical composition. The more reactive a mineral is to elements such as water and oxygen, the quicker it will weather. For example iron reacts to oxygen causing iron oxide to occur.
Certain other forces, like change in the Colorado River course, volcanism, continental drift, and the Earth's orbit. The formation of the Grand Canyon, the area was believed to be occupied by a chain of mountain ranges. These mountains, after a span of millions of years, had become plain due to erosion activities of water, ice, and wind. Meanwhile, due to the sudden climatic changes, the oceans moved over these areas and deposited rock layers. This process was repeated, resulting in the deposition of several rock layers.
However, kames consist of gravel and sand deposited by streams that flowed into holes in the glacial ice, depositing sediment in the holes. When the ice later melted, the materials slumped down, often forming conical-shaped hills. Thus, kames are formed "from above," veblens "from below" (diagram "A" showing difference in the origin of these two kinds of features ).
The intense pressure at the base of the glacier causes some of the ice to melt, forming a thin layer of subglacial water. This water flows into cracks in the bedrock. As the water refreezes, the ice acts as a lever loosening the rock by lifting it. The fractured rock is thus incorporated into the glacier’s load and is carried along as the glacier slowly moves. Abrasion happens when the glacier’s ice and rock fragments act as sandpaper,
Effusive volcanoes are more commonly formed at constructive plate margins where plates diverge. Here, lava tends to be basaltic meaning it is low in silica content. The low proportion of silica allows gases to expand and thus
What is at the difference between light and dark silicate minerals? Dark silicates are rich in iron and/or magnesium and are comparatively low in silica, Light silicates contain greater amounts of potassium, sodium, and calcium. 6. What is the second most common mineral in the crust? Quartz 7.
The strongest impact of the velocity difference is thought to be attributed to mineral precipitation around active hydrothermal circulation centres driven by the heat from active hot magma chambers. Within the Cascadia range their are two common classification of earthquakes. The most common is the shallow North American plate earthquake. These earthquakes typically occur at depths of 0 - 30 Km. The second type of earthquakes are the much deeper earthquakes that occur within the Juan de Fuca plate between 30 and 80 Km of