IB Psychology 1 H435-2 Erikson’s psychological theory of psychosocial development in adolescents has been supported and disputed, showing many strengths and weaknesses, by a multitude of case studies most specifically Rutter et al and Espin et al. Erikson’s theory describes the impact of social experience across the whole lifespan and shows how he believes that personality develops in a series of eight different stages. Each stage in Erikson’s theory is concerned with becoming competent in an area of life and experiencing a conflict that serves as a turning point in development. He believes that if the “stage” is handled well, the person will feel a sense of mastery but if the stage is handled poorly, the person will emerge with a sense of inadequacy. In Erikson’s view he sees these conflicts centered around developing a psychological quality or failing to develop that quality.
Through his work on attachment (1940-1990), he endeavoured to understand the formation and functioning of the personal relationships we create throughout the life course, with particular emphasis on those formed in childhood (Howe,1995:46). He did not support the rationale of the psychoanalytical theories of his time, which looked at human motivation in terms of drives and put forward that children’s relationship with their parents was based on the gains connected with feeding and other drive reduction strategies (Howe, 1995:50). Instead, Bowlby put forward that the formation of attachments has been heavily encoded in humans through evolution and is vital for survival and is essentially instinctive. Although, Bowlby did not believe that attachment behaviour is an inherited trait that operates in isolation from
How do ideas about childhood and families influence practice? The essay will first establish childhood and how the term ‘childhood’ has different meanings for different members of society. I will then go on to look at Social Constructionism and how this can shape our views of how it is an influence on the practice of working with childhood and families by looking into areas of childhood that are constantly changing and discussing how gender roles are an important value to society and how these have changed over recent decades and changing the attitudes of social construction. I am also going to discuss how ones identity can have an impact on practice provided and discriminations that children and families with disabilities can face from practitioners. The term childhood refers to the early stages of your life course, but it is important to understand that views and ideas of when childhood stops and the stage of becoming a young adult varies between the views of children, adults and different societies.
PART ONE The social constructionist perspective suggests that identities are constructed through language and social relation. Illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of this statement with examples of research studies from this and one other perspective. The theory of social constructionism is a relatively new concept that explores the development of identity; a question of how uniqueness and diversity is formed within us has preoccupied psychologists since the time of Freud and Jung. The social constructionism ideology states that our identities are de-centred and multiple and it has been argued by these theorists that there is a continual building of identity and a sense of our place in the world by individuals according to interaction with society, however small and transient. The theory also includes that as well as identity evolving, it is provisional as it is dependent on situation and cultural influences.
Erikson seen adolescence as a period of 'Psychosocial Moratorium' meaning that it is a socially accepted period of time for young people to try out different roles so that ultimately they discover who they are. Life decisions have to be tackled during this period, i.e. employment and sexual relationships. The end goal is to have established a secure feeling of who and what one is. Erikson's term for this is 'Ego Identity' If young people failed to achieve a secure ego identity, problems could arise, such as the inability to hold down one specific job and constantly
Young Adult Identities and Their Pathways: A Developmental and Life Course Model In this article we review several studies on how young adults identify themselves in modern world and how our society and their own experiences shape their adulthood. It focuses on the variations between gender, socioeconomic status, and race-ethnicity, psychological adjustment, and family. Several studies have shown that developmental model of a young adult’s identity can be divided in two strands: sociological and psychosocial. In order to see the whole picture of a young adult’s identity and fully understand how the transformation to adulthood happens, we need to bring the two processes together. In the first process young adults’ identity is shaped by the social norms which dictate what is appropriate or not for a certain age, and what does society expects from and individual.
A qualitative study showing how adults perceive the significant people in their lives have affected their development, using thematic analysis Abstract This study investigates the development psychology view of attachment theory that child relationships affect later development. A qualitative, textual analysis was carried out on a pre-existing, edited, filmed semi-structured interview. Thematic analysis showed that childhood relationships do affect an adult’s life, but they do not determine adult relationships and adults can have earned security through successful relationships in later life. Introduction Lifespan psychology, or development psychology, looks at the way our psychological characteristics develop and form throughout our lives. One of the main areas of focus in development psychology is the affect the early relationships we experience during childhood, such as those with our parents, can have in our later relationships in adulthood.
For example becoming independent from parents, education, finding employment and developing personal relationships. For Erikson, successful transition through the adolescent stage resulted in ego identity, a feeling of security of what and who the individual is. Erikson’s theory suggests that for different individuals, in differing psychological and social circumstances, the achievement of identity is not always a smooth process. He defined further stages of the process identity achievement including psychosocial moratorium which refers to a period where young people can try out different roles before adopting a
Further developments to this were made by James Marcia (Phoenix, 2002) focussing particularly on adolescence and researching this through “the Identity Status Interview” (Phoenix, 2002). The second, SIT, was developed by Henry Tajfel (Phoenix, 2002) and researched by experimental method. It focuses on intergroup relations, group membership and social identity as something that is distinct from personal identity. This essay outlines these contrasting theories and explains how each has contributed to our understanding of identity with particular reference to identity in adolescence. Psychosocial or Ego Identity Theory Erikson believed that when there is a stable social environment we are less likely to have identity crises.
Broderick & Blewitt (2015) define social comparison as comparing someone else’s abilities with their own, and this is a common practice during middle childhood and early adolescence. Middle childhood is when self-esteem is developed and these social comparisons can influence childhood self-esteem and an adolescent’s identity status (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). Eccles (1999) classifies these stages of development as being socially dramatic due to the individual wanting to fit in somewhere. Social rejection from peers can influence the development with negative behaviors and feelings