To not air such pranks; this can be easily accepted universally, which is in compliance with Kantian ethics. Perceived negatives that could come from Kantian ethics could be that even if the outcome is not ethical under this theory, an individual is compelled to follow their instruction. However, in this case the decision to
As Brown and Warner (1915) have pointed out, the difference in speed in reading names of colours and in naming colours may be accounted for the difference in experience called the "automatic word recognition hypothesis" or, as others have claimed, certain mental activities happen automatically even when not consciously stimulated by the subject. This phenomenon is due to the Stroop effect, and the following experiment aim to induce that same effect into the participants and observe the difference between reading the congruent and incongruent words. Twelve participants took part in the experiment. The data collected was analysed using the Inferential Statistical tests method, because this method enable us to assume that the whole population may behave in the same way as the participants in this experiment. The t-test value has been calculated and is found to be equal to 10.48.
An experimental study of a variation of the Stroop Effect: the interaction of an automatic and controlled process and attentional processes on a colour identification task. Abstract Theories suggest that selective attention allows for only one channel of input to be semantically analysed, whilst other information is discarded. It has been stated that much of this is unconscious and automatic; and that these over learned, automatic processes can intrude on a colour identification task. This was examined in a variation of the Stroop Effect test [you need to briefly state what was actually done in the study] and results showed that ink colour identification was slower for a list of colour names than when neutral words were used. This supports that the unconscious semantic processing of words on an unattended channel was intruding upon a task of naming ink colours.
In 2000 Schachter et al. added another long term memory store called perceptual representation system which is a store for the likelihood of recognising something when you have recently seen something similar. The evidence for separate memory
Describe and evaluate the Working Memory Model of Memory (12 marks) The working memory model by Baddeley and Hitch in 1974 is an alternative to the multi- store model, which was limited in its description of the STM. It consists of three main components, the first one being the central executive, which has overall control. The central executive is directs attention to two slave systems, the phonological loop and the visual-spatial sketchpad. The central executive has limited capacity but is able to process information from all the sensory systems, e.g. vision, hearing, etc.
Then the second list of words, which are words not corresponded with the colour and is the controlled process, these are read aloud with the errors and the time taken recorded and compared to the first set of data. These results can prove the hypothesis was supported and that controlled processes are more prone to thinking rather than just doing This experiment has had the aim of testing the effects of automatic and controlled processes in the Stroop effect. The Stroop effect demonstrates performing a controlled process task compared to an automatic process task and outlines the extended time taken to complete the task. An automatic process is a task or process that doesn’t involve much attention or effort to be performed. A controlled process does require undivided attention and an amount of mental effort is usually needed.
How does the past experience get into our memory in the first place? Atkinson and shiffrin (1968) were some of the first psychologists to attempt to answer this question with their multi – store model of memory. They suggested that memory is made up of a series of stores. The multi store model (Atkinson and shiffrin 1968) describes memory as information flowing through a system. Where the information is detected initially by the senses and then enters the sensory memory.
It does not mean that now we have to reject the idea of all inductive reasoning. Sometimes it seems to work and sometimes it does not. We just have to be able to distinguish the good from bad. At the contrast deductive reasoning allows us to deduce a conclusion
First memorize one chunk and then move on to the next. This method works best when the order of the item is not important. 14. Mnemonics These are encoding strategies used to organize to-be learned material, in order to make them more meaningful and easier to remember. 15.
(Mufflin, 2009) Idioms are used to express something that other words do not express as clearly or as cleverly. People often use an image or symbol to describe something as clearly as possible and thus make the point as effective as possible. For example, "in a nutshell" suggests the idea of having all the information contained within very few words. Idioms tend to be informal and are best used in spoken rather than written English. An Analogy is defined as a similarity in some respects between things that are otherwise dissimilar (muffin, 2009).