Streptococcus Pyogenes Essay

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Streptococcus Pyogenes Streptococcus Pyogenes is a pathogenic bacteria that causes approximately 11,500 cases of invasive disease and approximately 10 million cases of non invasive disease each year in the United States. It is estimated that there are over 700 million infections and 650,000 severe invasive infections worldwide, annually. It is a spherical bacterium that occurs in chains, or very rarely, occurs in pairs. The bacteria are gram positive, facultative anaerobes, and .6-1.0 micrometers in diameter. They reproduce by binary fission (asexual reproduction in which one cell divides into two cells of the same size). Their cell wall features high amounts of peptidoglycan and C- polysaccharides which provide a very strong structure for the cells. The bacteria have a rigid cell wall, an inner plasma membrane with cytoplasmic ribosomes, and a nucleoid. Streptococcus Pyogenes bacteria have many virulence factors including; a carbohydrate based bacterial capsule composed of hyaluronic acid which protects it from phagocytosis by neutrophil, and a cell wall embedded with M protein, lipoteichoic acid, and protein F, all of which facilitate attachment to various host cells. Streptococcus Pyogenes bacteria are an infrequent part of skin flora. The preferred hosts of Streptococcus Pyogenes are children ages four to seven or those with weakened immune systems. The throat, in particular, is colonized (mainly during the winter months). The incubation period for these bacteria is one to three days, and the portals of entry include; the mouth, broken skin, or the mucous membranes. Its method of spread is human to human, and can be transmitted by contact with infected droplet nuclei /mucous or an infected person. Currently, there are no vaccines available against Streptococcus Pyogenes ( although there has been research into the development of one). The best way to

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