How is the formula of a conjugate acid similar to its conjugate base, and how is it different? (2) They all transform to same molecules, vut Conjugate acid donates an H+ ion and conjugate base gains an H+ ion 10. Show how ammonia, NH3, is a base according to the Bronsted-Lowry definition, but not according to the Arrhenius definition. (Hint: See #8a.) (2) Although NH3 forms OH- with water, it did not donate any proton to form OH- but only gain.
Main – group metals usually for one cation (positive ion). In a binary ionic compound the metal (cation) is named first. Then the nonmetal (anion) is named, and the suffix -ide is added. To create the formula, you switch the charges, and that tells you how many of each element you will need. For example: Cation Anion Formula Name of Compound Ba2+ I- Ba2+ I- Barium Ion Iodide Ion BaI2 Barium Iodide Type 2: Binary Ionic Type 2 Binary Ionic compounds consist of a metal and a nonmetal.
Dipole-dipole forces are permanent dipoles due to different electronegativity. Hydrogen bonding is a strong dipole that forms when H bonds to N, O, or F.  Nitric acid (HNO3) is a colorless, toxic, oxidizing, and corrosive liquid commonly used as laboratory reagent and for the manufacture of fertilizers and explosives.  It is completely miscible and has a dipole moment of 2.17D. It contains one hydrogen bond and is a polar molecule. Water (H2O) is colorless liquid that’s the basis of life on Earth.
As for, the positive charges are found in the protons while the negative charges are found in the electrons. That’s why; all atoms must have the same amount of protons and neutrons, to have a neutral combination between both positive and negative charges. A single unit of proton is known to have +1 elementary charge; as for a single unit of an electron has a -1 elementary charge. Take any random atom, it is known to have 5 protons and 7 neutrons; so it has a +5 (positive) elementary charge and a -7 (negative) elementary charge, overall it has a -2 (elementary charge) and that is a negative net charge from the resulting combination of the electrons and protons. Any atoms, which don’t have an equal amount of both protons and electrons, are all referred as ions.
The atom is a basic unit of matter that consists of a dense central nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons. The atomic nucleus contains a mix of positively charged protons and electrically neutral neutrons (except in the case of hydrogen-1, which is the only stable nuclide with no neutrons). The electrons of an atom are bound to the nucleus by the electromagnetic force. Likewise, a group of atoms can remain bound to each other by chemical bonds based on the same force, forming a molecule. An atom containing an equal number of protons and electrons is electrically neutral, otherwise it is positively or negatively charged and is known as an ion.
Electrons do not emit radiation when orbiting in “allowed” energy levels and they do not spiral downwards. As stated by this idea, an electron which is in the first allowed orbit, has a principle that its quantum number (n) equals to 1 so the lowest state energy is called the ground state of the electron. Each electron has its own allowed energy level when it orbits, and electrons can only move from one energy level to another by absorbing or emitting
The components of most cocrystals are solid organic compounds. Cocrystals do not include liquids and gases as coformers. It means that solvates and hydrates are not considered as cocrystals in supramolecular chemistry field. When heated up, cocrystals tend to be more stable
This is known as the “Octet Rule”. Therefore it is the electrons that determine the chemistry of the atom. As a result the atoms either remain as atoms for example, the inert gases or become ions or molecules. The Noble Gases are said to be “inert” gases as these are reluctant to react with other substances as they are already stable atoms with full outer shells and therefore do not need to. Because these gases are monotomic molecules, there are only very weak forces called Van der Waals forces holding the molecules together therefore they have very low melting points and boiling points and are gases at room temperature.
Alkanes composed of only carbon and hydrogen atoms are referred to as hydrocarbons. A hydrocarbon with the hydroxyl group is known as alcohol. The experiment was to determine and examine the structure of the alkanes and alcohols and the presence and relative strength of the two intermolecular forces. Intermolecular forces are the attractions that exist between atoms and molecules. The strength of the intermolecular forces of attraction determines whether a substance will be a solid, a liquid, or a gas.
Lewis diagram: Non-metal oxides -called acidic anhydrides (anhydride means “without water”) -these react with water to form molecular acids containing H+ E.g. SO3(g) + H2O(l) ( H2SO4(aq) Note: H2CO3 is too unstable to be isolated as a pure compound. CO is not an acidic anhydride. Bases: Two categories 1) Ionic compounds that contain hydroxide ions or O2- 2) Molecular compounds that react with water to give hydroxide ions Bronsted-Lowry Theory of Acids and Bases -acids are proton donors -bases are proton acceptors -acid-base reactions involve an proton transfer from acid to base -involves conjugate acid-base pairs e.g. NH3 and CH3COOH Note: Conjugate acid-base pairs differ by one proton and a charge of 1 Amphoteric/Amphiprotic -a substance capable of reacting as an acid or a base -water in the above examples is amphoteric -another example is HCO3-1 which is part of the buffer system in our blood Polyprotic Acids -acids that have more than one ionisable hydrogen e.g.