Lin Article Critique: Part 2 xxxxxxxxxxxx Liberty University COUN 503 September xx, 20xx Lin Article Critique: Part 2 In order to critique an article on appropriate population and sampling techniques, experimental procedures, and evaluation measures a critic must understand what constitutes an experiment. A study may be classified as an experiment when variables are manipulated to determine the existence of cause-and-effect relationships (Jackson, 2012). Independent variables are manipulated and dependent variables are measured (Jackson, 2012). The independent variables identified in the article written by Lin, Mack, Enright, Krahn, & Baskin (2004), “Effects of Forgiveness Therapy on Anger, Mood, and Vulnerability
b. potential independent variables that are held constant. c. measured by the researcher. d. probable behavioral causes. 6. One reason a valid experiment may produce null results is a. the range of levels in the independent variable was insufficient to show an effect.
Introducing an ally who resisted the majority caused conformity levels to drop sharply (5%). The presence of an ally makes an individual feel more confident and better able to stand up to the majority. Asch also discovered that people are better able to resist pressure to conform if the decision has a moral dimension. For Asch’s participants, the costs of conforming were not particularly great given the insignificance of the task. However if the behaviour is judged as immoral such as joining others in cheating there is less evidence of conformity as the costs are perceived as greater.
2.12 b. 1.734 c. -1.740 d. 1.740 ANSWER: d -same process but now go to one tailed α=0.05 and dof = 17 4. Read the t statistic from the table of t distributions and circle the correct answer. A one-tailed test (lower tail), a sample size of 10 at a .10 level of significance; t = a. 1.383 b.
Chapter 11 Comparisons Involving Proportions Learning Objectives 1. Be able to develop interval estimates and conduct hypothesis tests about the difference between the proportions of two populations. 2. Know the properties of the sampling distribution of the difference between two proportions[pic]. 3.
*a. T b. F 21.VIF = 1 divided by the tolerance. * a.T b. F 22. An ANOVA conducted on 2 groups essentially is the same as conducting a t-test. *a. T b. F 23. When you want to test if the average score of an exam significantly differs from 7.3 (the average score of last year), an independent samples t-test is most appropriate.
The control group and experimental group will be compared to see if there is a statically significant difference. If there is a difference, it is due to the independent variable and the hypothesis has been proven correct or incorrect, depending on what the results show. At the end of an experiment, the study will be written up according to APA standards and will be submitted for peer review. By publishing the study other psychologists may replicate it. If the same results are found again, credibility will be added to the study.
Reliability Reliability takes into account the extent to which an assessment is consistent. It answers the question, ‘How consistent and stable is a test when measuring the intended subject?’ The four types of reliability are test-retest, alternate forms, internal consistency, and interrater reliability. Test-Retest Reliability Test-retest reliability is when a single group of people (animal or thing) is tested twice with the same instrument of measure separated by a period of time. IQ tests and surveys are prime candidates for test-retest methodology, because there is very little chance of people experiencing a sudden increase in IQ or suddenly changing their opinions on a particular subject. It is expected that the shorter the time gap, the higher the correlation.
Since the parameter is a population mean of a continuous variable variable, this suggests a one sample test of a mean. 2. SPECIFY THE NULL AND ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESES. The second step is to state the research question in terms of a null hypothesis (H0) and a alternative hypothesis (HA). The null hypothesis is the population parameter, µ = $30,000 (H0: µ = $30,000).
3. Methodology The methodology that this study will employ is a quantitative research approach. 3.1. Research design According to Burns and Grove (2010), descriptive research “is designed to provide a picture of a situation as it naturally happens”. For the purpose of this study, descriptive research design will be used to get a picture of psychology students’ knowledge and awareness of Autism.