Statistic Essay

332 Words2 Pages
「現在完成式」的使用時機大略分成三種: 一、某一個動作從過去一直持續到現在所累積的經驗,常和「for + 一段時間」或是「since + 一個過去的時間點」一起使用。如: 1. 我們住在這已經好幾年了。We have lived here for several years. 2. 她從小就學英文。She has studied English since she was a child. 3. 她30分鐘前就睡了。She has slept since thirty minutes ago. 二、表示到目前為止曾經有過或未曾有過的次數,常和ever, never, once, twice, before等副詞合用。 1. 他去過那裡好幾次。He has been there several times. 2. 你最近看過他幾次呢?How many times have you ever seen him lately? 3. 我從未看過那個女孩。I have never seen that girl. 4. Brown先生已經寫了二本書了。Mr. Brown has written two books. 三、表示已經完成或剛剛完成的動作,常和just或already一起使用: 1. 我已經做完我的功課了。I have already finished my homework. 2. 她剛剛看完這部電影。She has just seen the movie. 現在完成式的其他細節 ◎其他常和現在完成式一起用的副詞還有yet(用在否定句和疑問句)和how long。如: 1. 他還沒做完功課。He hasn’t finished his homework yet. 2. 你吃過午餐沒?Have you eaten lunch yet? 3. 你認識我多久了?How long have you known me? ◎「for+一段時間」不一定要使用現在完成式唷,要依據動詞與說話的時間來判斷,可能會使用到過去式、現在完成式甚至未來式。 1. Mary 已經看了三個鐘頭的電視了。Mary has watched TV for three hours. 2. Mary 昨天看了三個鐘頭的電視了。Mary watched TV for three hours. 3. Mary 到四點時,就會看了三小時的電視。May will have watched TV for 3 hours at 4. ◎如果句子要強調「已經」的話,就使用現在完成式;如果句中有表示過去的時間(如 yesterday、last+時間、時間+ ago等),仍是使用簡單過去式。如: 1. 她30分鐘前睡的。She slept thirty minutes ago. 2. 她30分鐘前睡的。She has slept since thirty minutes ago. ◎have gone to和have been to的比較: 1. 爸爸已經去了美國洽公。Father has gone to America on business.(現在不在這裡) 2. 爸爸因為洽公去過很多國家。Dad has been to many countries on business.(現在在這) ◎die的現在完成式: 在英文中,die是一個無法持續的動作,所以「他已經死了兩年」的句子,有兩種寫法: 1. He died two years ago.(表示死亡的時間點) 2. He has been dead since two years ago.(表示保持死亡的狀態dead) 所以不能寫成He has died since two years ago.(X)或He has died for two years(X). 過去式和現在完成式的綜合練習 1. Bill已經看了三個小時的電視。 Bill has watched TV for three hours. 2. 我從沒聽過那個人 。 I have never heard of that man. 3. 他一個小時前決定不去上學。He decided not to go to school an hour ago. 4. 他來台北三天了。He has been here in Taipei for three days. 5.

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