It is a polysaccharide that functions as a carbohydrate store and is an important part of the human diet used as an energy source. It is a polymer of glucose sugar which means it is composed of many glucose molecules linked in a chain. Plants store the starch instead of simple sugars. Cellulose is an insoluble substance which is the main part of plant cell walls and vegetable fibres such as cotton. It is also a polysaccharide consisting of chains of glucose monomers.
Introduction: As implied by the name "lactic cultures," belong to a category of microorganisms that can digest the milk sugar lactose and convert it into lactic acid. For the cells to utilize lactose, deriving carbon and energy from it, they must also possess the enzymes needed to break lactose into two components sugars: glucose and galactose. Some representative strains are Streptococcus lactis, S. cremoris, thermophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and L. plantarum. These cultures can be purchased directly from local health food and drug stores in tablet form. These tablets, taken orally during the intake of dairy products, help those people who have digestive tract disorder and cannot tolerate lactose.
(Swann, 2008) The pancreas also makes amylase (alpha amylase) to hydrolyse dietary starch into disaccharides and which are converted by other enzymes to glucose to supply the body with energy. Hypothesis: Most enzymes are very specific for a certain substrate. The active site on the enzyme molecule forms a keyhole into which the substrate fits like a key. The substrate molecule is then broken up into many smaller pieces. “The higher the reaction temperature, the more kinetic
Digestive enzymes are hydrolytic enzymes. Their substances, or the molecules on which they act are organic food molecules which they breakdown by adding water to the molecular bonds, thus cleaving the bonds between the subunits or monomers. Digestive enzymes can function outside the body cells; their activity can be studied by test tubes (Marieb and Mitchell 2010). This experiment attempts to re-create the breakdown process that is normally done via digestion with Iodine as a vital component. It can be expected that once amylase reacts with the starch, maltose will then be broken down and less starch will be visible and more sugar will be apparent thus causing the solution mixed with iodine to become lighter and lighter.
Cholesterol helps to form the bilayer membrane that surrounds each cell within the body. (Cooper, 2000) Cholesterol is made by the liver and acquired through diet, and consists of a waxy like substance. The body uses cholesterol in the production of some hormones, bile, Vitamin D and is found within cells and blood. Cholesterol is also used in the production of myelin sheaths, which are essential in the covering of the nerves. HDL’s (high density lipoprotein) is considered to be “good” cholesterol and assists in carrying LDL’s (low density lipoprotein) to the liver to be processed and exported out of the body.
Vitamin B7 (Biotin) * Function: Essential in the metabolism and synthesis of essential fatty acids, carbohydrates and fats and the release of energy from these foods. Keeps hair, skin and nails healthy. Vitamin B9 (Folic acid) * Function: Required for the production of red blood cells, DNA and proteins in the body. It is important for the growth and repair of cells and tissues and is especially important during pregnancy to prevent babies being born with spina bifida. Vitamin B12 * Function: Required for the metabolism process and to maintain the nervous system.
A cheeseburger consists of bread, meat and cheese. The bread contains carbohydrates which gives us energy. The meat contains protein which helps to build up the body and the cheese contains fats and oils, lipids, which also give us energy, and the fats in addition keep us warm and oils on the surface help to keep the body waterproof. There is also water and salt in the cheeseburger. The salts help to make tissues and organs in the body work properly and water provides a fluid in which other substances can move around the body and react together within the cells.
Millard reaction products changes while processing foods, and they are important either in the increasing or fighting of diseases. Furthermore; SOYBEAN processing also produces MPRs that is good and bad to health play an important role in the cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, and cancer. Also microwaving of soybeans for a short time (1-2) min produces high of acrylamide, while (3-5) min microwaving can lead to low level of acrylamide which acts as a carcinogen. Milk undergoes Ultra high temperature (UHT) treatment for the quality and safety. Also milk processing has both initial and advanced stages of MPRs which acts as an indicator of browning reaction in milk.
Vitamin C also helps in homeostasis by helping to produce adrenaline. Furthermore it helps to form collagen; lack of Vitamin C can lead to Scurvy or symptoms of scurvy. It also helps to produce white blood cells in the body. These prove how important Vitamin C is in the body. Method: In this investigation same volume of 3 different types of orange juice are used, to find out which one has the most Vitamin C. This investigation involves using the organic indicator called Dichlorophenolindophenol which abbreviates to DCPIP.
Eating too much of one component can do as much harm as not eating enough of it. A balanced diet will have the right proportions of fat, protein and carbohydrates as they provide energy. They are all essential for the management of bodily functions. Our body cells convert nutrients into other components and are then used for metabolism and other cellular reactions. Starch, a major carbohydrate is converted to glucose and then reconverted into fat storage.