08 Fall 08 Fall Knowing the Social Sciences: Pickton Case Assessment Lucy Kervin HSB4ME Bradford 22/02/13 Psychology * Does the perpetrator suffer from any mental disorders that could have lead to the committing of crimes? * What were the reasons behind the committing of the crimes? * Did the perpetrator target only women? What is the reason(s) for this? Psychoanalytic: was the perpetrator exposed to any traumatizing events that could have lead to this behavior?
Victims and Victimization Jessieca Omowele Keiser University Criminology September 18, 2011 Professor Colon Abstract Until the 1980s, the study of crime and deviance focused on the criminal or deviant, or on the social processes that labeled particular actions as criminal or deviant. From the 1980s onwards, there has been an interest in the study of the victims- who they are, the interactions between criminal and victim, and the effect of crime or other deviance on the victim (Abercrombie, Hill and Turner 2006). Victims and Victimization Victims were once viewed to be “in the wrong place at the wrong time” but that changed more than 60 years ago when studies found that, the victim’s own behavior is important in the crime process. Victims were found to influence criminal behavior by playing an active role in a criminal incident, such as when an assault victim initially provokes an eventual attacker. Victims can also play an indirect role in a criminal incident, such as when a woman adopts a lifestyle that continually brings her into high-crime areas (Siegel 2011).
Word count : 1700 Criminal victimization and rational theories The classical approach to explain crime has always revolved around examining the personal motivations of offenders for committing crime. However, in the recent past decades researchers have focused not only on offender incentive, but also on the lifestyles and activities of those at risk of being victimized. The following article explores different risk determinants, rational choice and social control theories in an attempt to establish both victim and offender's crime circumstances. Cohen, Kluegel and Land present the opportunity model of predatory victimization perspective as a basic explanatory model for criminal victimization. In order to comprehend why race, age and income have the potential to affect criminal victimization, the authors portray five main risk factors which are: exposure, guardianship, proximity to potential offenders, attractiveness of targets and definitional properties of specific crimes.
Holmes & Holmes (2009, p290) stated “To appraise a crime without some knowledge of the victim is certainly remiss.” The victim constitutes half of the crime therefore victimology should be heavily looked at in order to connect them to the offender (Douglas, Burgess, Burgess, & Ressler, 1992).Victimology is important to an investigation process in that, it is not just learning about the victim’s personal history and personality, but it also why the victim was chosen (Petherick, 2010). Holmes and Holmes (2009,p 291) created a list of elements which should be important to victim profiling it includes: "Physical traits, marital status, personal lifestyle, occupation, education, personal demographics, medical history, psychosexual history, court history, and last activities." A victim’s lifestyle, preferences, family, relationships, and routines, can give investigators clues about potential suspects who had access to the victim (Brown & Davenport, 2012). Other concepts that should be considered when victim profiling are the method of approach, method of attack and risk assessment (Turvey, 1999). Con, surprise, and blitz are three methods of approach that an offender will use to capture his victim.
In it’s simplest definition, victimology is the study of the victim or victims of a particular offender (Wallace & Roberson 2011: 3). However, two other definitions expound deeper into victimology: (1) victimology is the study of crime victims and the psychological effects of being a victim (Def, Random House Dictionary, 2011), and (2) victimology is the study of the ways in which the behavior of crime victims may have or have not contributed to their victimization (Def, Merriam-Webster, 2011). The early works about victims were first written by criminologist, as early as the mid 1700’s. The term victimology was coined by Beniamin Mendelsohn in 1974 (Dussich, 2000). Several criminologist (Hentig, Mendelsohn and Ellenberger) examined victim-offender interactions and stressed reciprocal influences and role reversals.
Interpersonal Violence: Stalking Stalking is a serious interpersonal violence that can escalate over time. Stalking is repeated harassing or threatening behavior by an individual towards someone. Examples include appearing at a person's home or place of business, making harassing phone calls, leaving written messages or objects, or vandalizing a person's property. Any unwanted contact between two people can be considered stalking. Stalking is a crime that can touch anyone, regardless of gender, race, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, geographic location, or upbringing.
1. What is a typology? What are some of the typologies of violent crime that this module discusses? * Typology is classifying offenses or offenders by some relatedness, criteria, or similarity, arranging some offenders as normal, abnormal, habitual, or professional...extending from insane to petty offenders. Typology for crime uses defined characteristics, such as motivation, situation, behavior-both victim and offender-, and aspects unique to the offense.