It is estimated that between 1934-8, 20 million Russians were sent to these gulags. By the time the terror had subsided in 1939, people were living in such fear that they were brought into a state of complete submission to his rule thus he had established a personal dictatorship with the use of terror. Secondly, Socialist realism was used to help Stalin establish his personal dictatorship. This was a form of social control thus played an important role in Stalin’s personal dictatorship because it persuaded the people of Russia that the sacrifices they were making were part of grand vision. Socialist realism implied that all forms of art should display socialist views and be realistic.
History Essay: How Significant were the Personalities of the contenders to succeed Lenin in accounting for Stalin’s defeat of his opponents 1924-29? In this essay I will be looking at the strengths and weaknesses of contenders, Lenin’s legacy: what he left behind with his success, failures and his system. Also I will be looking at the Alliances which Stalin formed which helped him win the leadership contest, Stalin’s Party Position and its significance, Stalin’s use of devious tactics and the failings of the other opponents. Stalin personality meant that he appealed to the Communist Party Membership, which helped him become leader of the USSR and defeat all the other Candidates. Stalin’s appeal was based on the fact he was the ‘Voice of Moderation’ which appealed to many members across the party whereas other contenders were seen as extreme, therefore they had a narrow base of support.
Stalin was never considered to be a prominent member of the Politburo however he became one of the most well known leaders of the Soviet Union and the most feared. Firstly Stalin built himself a ‘power base’ within the party that allowed him to defeat his rivals. He did this by firstly impressing Lenin about his practical abilities and there Lenin saw him as well suited for the position of General Secretary. Consequently in 1922 Lenin and Kamenev appointed Stalin. With the power that Stalin had now acquired he could appoint new members for the party and demote members of the party.
In 1907, 1,200 government officials were murdered in political terrorist attacks by revolutionaries. Meaning that the revolutionary ideas and parties were still strong and threatening the government position. They tackled this problem by making the trial and punishment system harder and harsher. Stolypin (the Tsar Chief Minister) was the main man responsible for this, he met terror with terror by using field court Martials – these involve the armed forces deciding who’s guilty and what their punishments should be. Due to the stricter and tougher jury system 1,144 death sentences were handed out between October 1906
How far does Stalin’s position as General Secretary explain his success in defeating his rivals in the years 1924-29? Following Lenin’s death in 1924, the Communist Leadership in Russia was thrown into disarray. Months of ideological confusion, full of proposals of ideas for the future of socialism, bought about potential contenders for party leadership and amongst these was Joseph Stalin. Throughout the next 5 years, a great power struggle occurred between the contenders but Stalin eventually emerged successful as the new leader of the USSR. It was Stalin’s position as General Secretary and other factors that that contributed to his success.
“How significant were the personalities of the contenders to succeed Lenin in accounting for Stalin’s defeat of his opponents in the years 1924-1929?” The main personalities for the so-called “struggle for power”, namely Bukharin, Trotsky, Zinoviev and Kamenev, played a significant role in the success of Stalin as the leader of the Communist Party. The main reasons, however, include Stalin’s political shrewdness, Stalin’s manipulation of the Party machine and Stalin’s exploitation of the internal divisions of the Party. One reason as to why Stalin succeeded Lenin was his political shrewdness. He exercised his political shrewdness in two ways. Firstly, he capitalised on the ‘Cult of Lenin’ by painting himself as a natural successor to Lenin.
It is estimated that between 50,000 and 140,000 people were killed in this campaign during the Russian Civil War. The Cheka was created by Vladimir Lenin to deal with threats to his new regime. It was led by Felix Dzerzhinsky and used to inflict the Red Terror, operating outside of the law and answering to no one. The Cheka was extremely important in allowing the Bolsheviks to establish their power and influence people’s view of their new government. It is speculated that the Bolsheviks would not have retained power for very long if it had not been for the workings of the Cheka during that time period as they
After Lenin’s death, there was a dispute over the succession between Bukharin, Trotsky, Kamenev and Stalin. Trotsky could end the dispute and took power as the head of the Bolsheviks with Lenin's Testament, which criticized the oppositions Trotsky. However, he did not do it, and Stalin, using his position in the Bolshevik Party was able to get his men in high positions and policies through a swing, a union with his opposition to displace others, was able to take power in 1923 and the elimination of his violent Trotsky opposition, using a "ban on faction’’. In some cases, single-party leaders use a combination of legal and illegal methods to come to power. For Stalin, what he did was entirely legal.
Unit 1 Stalin – Assignment ‘To what extent was Stalin’s victory over his opponents in the power struggle a result of his opponents mistakes?’ In 1929, four years after the death of Lenin, the power struggle between Stalin, Trotsky, Bukharin, Kamenev and Zinoviev was over. Stalin was the undisputed leader of the USSR. Many people would said that Stalin’s victory was due to the mistakes made by his opposition, yet it could also be argued that there were other reasons behind his rise to power. One of Stalin’s biggest opponents during the power struggle was that of Trotsky (left wing), who some considered to be the favourite to succeed Lenin at the time of his death in 1924. Despite his Menshevik past, Trotsky was close to Lenin and had played a key role in the communist party.
The Nazi party now forced to think tactically and with the burning of the Reichstag building through a communist Hitler was able to blame the extremist party for the beginning of a revolution and with President Hindenburg's approval he arrested the ‘enemies of the state’. With this fortunate accident, the ‘missing’ SPD party and the agreement with Zentrum Hitler was able to get his two thirds majority to pass the Enabling Act which entitled him to pass laws without parliamentary approval. Although on the surface Hitler seemed to have a lot of control, this was not complete, due to the fact that President Hindenburg could over rule him and perhaps even terminate him as chancellor. This power, however, led to multiple sudden adjustments to Germany, after becoming a one party state by July 1933, through making the SPD party and all other competitors illegal, he continued to set loose on Germany’s very powerful and threatening trade unions. Trade unions posed a strong threat to the NSDAP due to their power in Germany, considering their support for the SPD and even KPD.