Stages Of Development Essay

1119 WordsMar 8, 20125 Pages
Piaget’s 4 stages of cognitive development 1. Sensory-motor period (from birth until age 2) --Behavior is organized around its sensory or motor effects --Culminates in attaining the concept of object permanence. --Object permanence: understanding that objects have a continued existence when they disappear from view. 2. Pre-operational stage (from 2-6) --Characterized by egocentric thought. --Children cannot adopt alternative viewpoints; They cannot think from another person’s perspective. 3. Concrete operational stage (6-12) --Children are able to adopt alternative viewpoints. --Conservation task: pour water from short, wide glass into tall, thin one --Concrete operational child understands the amount of water stays the same. 4. Formal operational stage (12 and up) --Child is not limited to concrete thinking. --Child can reason abstractly and logically. 8 Psychological Stages Psychosocial Stage 1 - Trust vs. Mistrust • The first stage of Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development occurs between birth and one year of age and is the most fundamental stage in life.2 • Because an infant is utterly dependent, the development of trust is based on the dependability and quality of the child’s caregivers. • If a child successfully develops trust, he or she will feel safe and secure in the world. Caregivers who are inconsistent, emotionally unavailable, or rejecting contribute to feelings of mistrust in the children they care for. Failure to develop trust will result in fear and a belief that the world is inconsistent and unpredictable. Psychosocial Stage 2 - Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt • The second stage of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development takes place during early childhood and is focused on children developing a greater sense of personal control.2 • Like Freud, Erikson believed that toilet training was a vital part of

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