It increased by 7 ft a day.” Earthquakes You can predict when a volcano will erupt because you get earthquakes. This is because most volcanoes follow a regular pattern of increasing seismic activity as the eruption is about to take place, usually in the form of small earthquakes. Scientist use special equipment seismometers that tell and record earthquakes that happen underneath the volcano. Long period earthquakes- are beneath volcanoes and are believed that it is caused by magma moving through cracks that then shake the ground. Short period earthquakes- earthquakes under the volcanoes that is believed to be caused by rock breaking events Both types of
This would explain why the island (thought to be due to a mud volcano) appeared off the coast of Pakistan this fall at about the same time as the large earthquake. Seismic waves of larger earthquakes are thought to trigger subsequent mud volcano eruptions up to a year after the event. The role the seismic waves play is not yet fully understood. Other tectonic activity, sedimentary loading due to rapid sedimentation, and continuous hydrocarbon accumulation are said to also control the occurrence of mud volcanoes. On a
A hazard is a natural event that has the potential to effect both life and property. When looking at earthquakes there is one primary hazard which occurs and this is the shaking of the ground. In addition there are many secondary hazards such as landslides, fires, avalanches, liquefaction and tsunamis. There are many human factors to be discussed such as preparedness, development level, land use and education and many other contradicting factors such as the tectonic setting and the time of year. To show the view that the impact of earthquake hazards depends primarily on human factors, I will situate the essay around some seismic events that have previously occurred; Haiti in the Caribbean, 2010, Christchurch in New Zealand, 2011, Sichuan in China, 2008 and Indian Ocean, 2004.
One last earthquake was the Great San Francisco earthquake on April 18, 1906. The magnitude for this earthquake was 7.8 and was on the San Andreas fault line. Predicting earthquakes is not as hard now as it was back then, before technolog. With modern technology, scientists use the Modified Mercalli scale, the Richter scale and the Seismograph. The Modified Mercalli scale allows scientists to measure the damage of structures from the earthquakes.
It makes sense, given the way in which shield volcanoes form (so that their size is gradually increasing and reaches a vast extent) that some of the world’s largest volcanoes are members of the shield classification. Examples of shield volcanoes include the Hawaiian Islands and volcanic mountains in Northern California and Oregon. The Hawaiian Islands are actually perfect examples of the sheer size of shield volcanoes, as the island chain began as a run of underwater volcanoes that grew
With a volcano you can have different types of hazard depending on the location is respect to constructive and destructive margins and also including hot spots, at a constructive margin or hot spot you find shield volcanoes with basaltic lava and these eruptions are common enough that you can stay away from the danger zone at which point you are in little or no danger, Mauna Loa in Hawaii is a good example of this as nobody lives close enough to the vent to be in danger. When you look at a volcano near to a destructive margin like the Soufriere Hills eruption that has large explosions of viscous lava, which is followed by tephra, volcanic gases and pyroclastic flows it is much more difficult to predict and escape the dangerous areas. Plymouth the capital city was obliterated by one of these avalanches of searing hot ash and the pyroclastic flow is basically unstoppable; this means that whether you are rich or poor, if you get caught in the path you will be killed or lose all of your belongings that you didn’t save.
The epicenter is located directly above the focus on the earth’s surface. After the fault splits, seismic waves which are produced of energy are released in all different directions. (United States Geological Survey USGS) Seen to the left are the epicenter, focus, and seismic waves. Smaller earthquakes that occur in the same location before the larger earthquake are called foreshocks. Unfortunately scientists aren’t able to tell if an earthquake is a foreshock until the larger earthquake occurs.
Andre Rudenko 1/12/14 Why bother to learn about plate tectonics? Fifty-thousand or more people die or have serious injuries yearly from earthquakes and other geological events which are related to the plate tectonics theory. It is extremely important for students to understand this theory because the serious consequences. For example, one small movement of the internal plates creates strong earthquakes, or the heat under the layers give birth to volcanoes, so a few reasons to know about this are safety, inspiration, and knowledge. The most important reason is safety.
Gas or its inability to escape is what causes volcanos to become violent. The longer gas is trapped, the more pressure builds up. The cause of gas building up is the result of the viscosity of the magma the gas is trapped in. Viscosity is the measure of the flow or how easily a liquid flows. If a liquid is viscous it is thick and will flow slowly like honey whereas a liquid that is nonviscous will flow like water.
Abstract— Seismology is the scientific study of earthquakes & the propagation of seismic waves through the earth. The big advances in seismology are done from around 1900 and onwards. This advancement helps in making more sensitive seismographs so that earthquakes could be properly located. In the last ten years, recording devices completely replaced their old analog system by digital systems. The latter systems are costly, large in size, require specialized maintenance and are incompatible with computer data processing and analysis.