This assignment is a summary of two theories that are used in Sports Psychology. The first I am going to summarise is Social Loafing as it is a very interesting theory and I have experienced social loafing myself. The second theory that I am looking at is Self-Esteem.
Social loafing can be described as “the tendency to exert on a task when an individual’s efforts are an unidentifiable part of a group effort than when the same task is performed alone.”
(Smith and Mackie. 2007. Pg 452)
It is believed that arousal plays a big part in social loafing as people believe that “If your individual efforts can be evaluated easily, you will tend to be highly aroused, therefore you are likely to do better on simple tasks and worse on complex tasks. If people cannot tell to look at you how hard you are trying, your arousal levels will tend be lower, and therefore you should do worse at simple tasks and better at complex tasks.”
Social loafing can be found in such sports as rowing and tug of war. Where you are in a group and your individual performance is not the outcome of the final result. Social loafing often occurs when an individual’s performance cannot be recorded in a group activity as everyone relies on everyone else to perform. In an experiment using a rope pulling apparatus they blind folded all the participants and had them all tug on this rope. They found that the people at the front pulled less than the people behind them when they thought they were pulling harder.
It is not only in sport where social loafing occurs as it is also found in other activities such as group work for assignments, clapping and cheering in crowds. There were tests performed where they had six people to clap, then to cheer. This test was undertaken at individual level to begin with and then as a group. They found that from this experiment that when they performed this task as a group the noise each individual produced was less than half of what they produced...