Sports Essay

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Within the context of sport, explain how gender and class ideologies play a part in the perpetuation of inequities in 21st century western society. You should draw on political and contemporary theory and research to support your argument. Introduction The study of the relationship between sports and the society has become a focus of many research studies in the last decades. The theories of sport and society first emerged in an institutionalised form in the 1960’s in the West, as a part of higher education expansion (Theberge, 2002). Studies that stem from these theories aim to analyse whether different societal ideologies have an influence on the way people participate in and perceive sports, especially, if such ideologies lead to the ideas of social inequities between the members of the society. Political theories are of particular interest in this field, since they provide the baseline for the ideologies that exist in the society. The most common ideologies that play a part in the perpetuation of inequities in sports are gender and social class ideologies, which will be the focus of this paper. Many theories and research studies show that western individualistic cultures are quite different from non-western collectivistic cultures (individualism refers to the societal structure in which people prefer to stand out as isolated individuals rather than members of groups, whilst collectivism refers to the societal structure where people value group loyalty and conformity, rather than standing out as an individual) (Hogg & Vaughan, 2008). For instance, Triandis (1994b) and Triandis, Leung, Villareal and Clack (1985) introduced the concepts of allocentrism and idiocentrism to explain collectivism and individualism, respectively. Researchers suggested that allocentric people strive towards social support, honesty and cooperation while idiocentric people

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