For example: the right hemisphere controls the left side of the body, and the right hemisphere controls the left side. I recently watched a video of Michael Gazzaniga, a professor of psychology, conducting split-brain research on one of his patients (Joe) who suffered from severe epilepsy. He decided to divide the corpus callosum in order to stop the electrical impulses between the two brain hemispheres in the hope of controlling Joe’s seizures. After the intervention, both brain hemispheres continued to function even though they were unable to communicate with each other as before, and the epilepsy was effectively controlled. I was surprised to learn that Joe commented that he didn’t notice any significant changes in his behavior or brain function.
c) How does one nerve cell communicate with another? - Nerve cells communicate with one another through neurotransmitters. 2. a) Explain what neurotransmitters are? - Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing where that neuron will generate a neural impulse.
Describe the mechanism(s) by which strokes occur. Cerebrovascular Accident- condition in which brain tissue is deprived of blood supply. The most common stroke symptoms are: • Numbness or weakness (paresis) of the face, arm, or leg, sometimes only on one side; • Confusion, trouble speaking or understanding speech (aphasia) • Trouble seeing • Trouble walking or dizziness; loss of balance or coordination (ataxia) • Severe headache with no known cause 1. Ischemic stroke (~83%)- blood vessel supplying brain tissue is blocked by a blood clot a. cerebral thrombus b. cerebral embolism 2. Hemorrhagic stroke (~17%)- A blood vessel breaks open, causing blood to leak into the brain 3.
4 marks 3 studies – HM, KF and Clive W MARK SCHEME – KF – impaired stm, unaffected ltm One study which demonstrates that LTM AND STM are different is the study of HM. HM suffered from brain damage due to an operation he underwent to remove the hippocampus from both sides of his brain this was to reduce the severe epilepsy he suffered from. HM’s personality and intellect remained intact but he could now no longer form new long term memories although he could remember things from before his surgery. This could suggest to us that the hippocampus acts as a ‘gateway’ though which new memories must pass before entering permanent
Its purpose is to organize the information received from the other components with information about time and order. [+]Cohen et al- higher brain activity in part of the brain known as the prefrontal cortex during a task where the central executive was working. This supports WMM as it proves the existence of central executive through biological evidence. [+]Farah et al- patient LH and found that he was capable of visual tasks but was not capable of spatial tasks. This supports the WMM as it suggests that the VSSP consists of two stores, something that is also
This detection is carried out by photoreceptors within the human eyes. The photoreceptors consist of cones, which are responsible for colour recognition, and rods which are responsible for detecting contract between light and dark. When the electromagnetic energy hit these photoreceptors, this is relayed back to the brain which converts this energy into the images that are perceived by human being. The eyes of have many different properties and seven of them will be tested and verified in this laboratory with seven different experiments. These experiments are as follows, the convergence of gaze, accommodation of the sight, blind spot of the eye, mechanical stimulation of the photoreceptors, positive afterimage, negative afterimage and finally visualizing retinal blood vessels.
Additionally, people are said to prefer one type of thinking over the other. For example, a person who is "left-brained" is often said to be more logical, analytical and objective, while a person who is "right-brained" is said to be more intuitive, thoughtful and subjective. While Sperry was able to observe people’s different personalities, he also could see which functions lied in which halves. When he cut the corpus collosum in an attempt to reduce seizures in patients, he noticed that they could not name objects directly in front of them. This led to years of experiments which gave Sperry a reliable theory on which functions lie in which hemispheres.
A good analogy for the brain is a super computer. The brain is divided into two distinct and separate parts by a thick cable of nerves at the base of each brain, called the corpus collosum. The left hemisphere of our brain is wired to the right side of our body and vice versa. This even applies to our eyes, with information from our right eye going to the left hemisphere and information from our left eye feeding the right hemisphere. Most scientists and researches seem to agree that there are definite difference sin the way each hemisphere of the brain works.
The right part of the brain has its own style of processing information. At the same time, the left part also has its own style of processing the data that it receives. According to psychologists, the left part of the brain tends to process data in a linear way. It first processes the parts of the information before processing the whole information. The left part first collects the parts of the information and then arranges them in a logical manner.
There are two such diseases that affect only the sensory transduction layer, the photoreceptor layer, of the retina. The first is AMD and the second is retinitis pigmentosa (RP), both these diseases result in a lost of photoreceptors, see figure 1. surgical challenge. As to epi-retinal versus sub-retinal, the epiretinal approach is easier form a surgical point of view but the mechanical anchoring of the implant to the epi-retinal surface is difficult. This can be partially alleviated by placing the device subretinally, though the surgery becomes more difficult. Cortical implants offer another means of restoring visual function by placing a device that interfaces directly with the brain.