Speech And Language Disorders Essay

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Up to this point , we have been discussing examples of language dissolution that are the result of operations on the brain, but these cases are rare when compared to the many ways in which an individual´s language can deviate significantly from social norms. Their number is too vast to summarize adequately here but a brief review of two representative examples, stuttering and autism, will help to reinforce several themes and insights that have been brought out earlier in this book. Stuttering, also referred to as stammering, is one of the most common articulation problems encountered by speech pathologists, at least in most English speaking countries. Like the slips of the tongue reviewed in Chapter 3, stuttering reveals psycholinguistics information about how speech is organized and planned. Research has demonstrated, first of all, that stuttering is not random: it does not punctuate our speaking spasmodically, like hiccough. It occurs, most frequently on the initial word of a clause, the first syllable, and on stop consonants (like /p/, /t/, /k/). There is an enormous and somewhat controversial research literature on the causes of stuttering, and explanations range between two classic psycholinguistic extremes. On the one hand, the Johnson theory represents the extreme behavioral view and claims that stuttering originates from traumatic events occurring in early childhood when overly sensitive parents (who often themselves were childhood stutterers) and/or primary school teachers are too assiduous in attempting to ensure that the child speaks fluently. Because language is such a fundamental component of human socialization, caretakers often display disproportionate attention to child´s speech compared to any other aspect of its development. The same parent or teacher who criticizes a four-year-old for blurting out “P-p-p-please!” is unlikely to comment on the
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