Describe the ways in which Beethoven makes use of form and tonality in the first movement The first movement of Beethoven’s First Symphony is in sonata form. This means that the movement is divided into four sections, the first subject, the bridge, the second subject and the codetta. The movement starts off in the tonic key of C major. It remains in this key for a few bars until in changes to D minor in bar nineteen. The first subject starts at bar thirteen and ends at bar thirty-three on a perfect cadence in C major.
Bars 41-43 can be referred to as the Codetta which emphasises the tonic key. In Contrast to Corelli, Mozart wrote his Piano Sonata in sonata form. This form is split into the exposition (bars 1-63), development (63-93) and recapitulation (93-end). Both the exposition and recapitulation have smaller sections defined by themes and tonality. The Exposition begins with the first subject (bars 1-10) in b flat that ends on a perfect cadence.
THE CLASSICAL PERIOD (1750-1825) THE CLASSICAL PERIOD OF MUSIC 1) TIME OF GREAT MUSICAL EXPERIMENTATION AND DISCOVERY 2) CENTERS AROUND ACHIEVEMENTS OF VIENNESE SCHOOL A) HAYDN B) MOZART C) BEETHOVEN 3) THREE CHALLENGING PROBLEMS A) EXPLORE MAJOR-MINOR SYSTEM TO ITS FULLEST B) TO PERFECT A LARGE FORM OF ABSOLUTE INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC (THE SONATA CYCLE) C) TO DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN ITS (SONATA CYCLE) VARIOUS TYPES 1) SONATA 2) CONCERTO SYMPHONY 3) ELEMENTS OF THE CLASSICAL PERIOD 1) ELEGANT AND LYRICAL MELODIES A) ELEGANT AND LYRICAL MELODIES B) CLEAR-CUT CADENCES 2) THE HARMONIES THAT SUSTAINED THESE MELODIES A) FIRMLY ROOTED IN THE KEY RHYTHM 3) A) MUSIC WAS IN EITHER 2, 3, 4, OR 6/8 B) STAYED IN RHYTHMIC STYLE IT BEGAN WITH 4) FORM A) UNFOLDED
Although the full suite includes trumpets, oboe, and tympani as well as the strings and a bass line usually played on harpsichord and cello, this movement is reduced to the string orchestra only. The movement begins with a long, rhythmic opening that transitions smoothly to phrases in which the violin and the viola “communicate” with the melody. The piece also includes ornamentation and exaggerated dynamics common to Baroque style music. As the music is played, listen closely for the suspensions common throughout the movement. They provide the harmonic tension
Another example would be how on measure 128 the beginning of the piece is repeated but in a minor key, right after the long fermata, it changes in to a major key B flat major. At bar 35 the key D+ now modulates in to the dominant key A+, then after at 60 the key changes in to A-.After measure 66 there are different variations of the 4 note motif Beethoven likes to use the subdominant key in this case G+ in a special place, and you can see that he uses it very well close to the beginning of the coda. Like parts of a forest illuminated by the shifting sunlight that peaks through a cloudy sky, this proto-Impressionist piece repeats its quiet yet enchanted melody, with variations in pitch and length. The constant triplet figure in sixteenths in the beginning is found throughout the majority of the
These sections are the exposition, which starts from the first bar in K.333, the development, which between bars 63 and 93 and the recapitulation that occurs from bar 93 until the end of the piece. Poulenc’s Sonata is written in ternary form, which means that it follows an A-B-A structure. In this specific piece, the A section starts at bar 1, the B section starts at bar 26, then at bar 58 the A section returns again. In Mozart’s K.333 there are clear perfect cadences used in the piece that help reinforce the tonality, however in Poulenc’s Sonata although there are perfect cadences some of them are not completed and are instead suggested and then interrupted. In Mozart’s K.333 the cadences are used to reinforce the tonality, such as in bars 9-10 where the cadence is in the tonic key.
The development and the recapitulation manipulates the motive over and over again before pausing for an oboe solo which briefly halts the momentum of the music. The coda features a dominant-tonic harmony battling with the percussion emphasizing the beat. The second movement is in theme and variation form; as the form suggested, the movement features two different pastoral themes which becomes four simple elegant variations. The motive is heard during the variations, interrupting the peaceful mood until the basses create a powerful note heralding the return of the variations. The second movement ends with the bassoon and an accelerated passage in the coda.
The music of the Classical Period is characterised by objectivity and emotional restraint, clarity of form and adherence to certain structural principles. Although Beethoven made use of the concepts of music predominantly in the style of the classical era, he incorporates several aspects which are more evident in the romantic period. As a composer of the late classical and early romantic periods, Beethoven’s Symphony No. 5 epitomises the stylistic characteristics of the classical era but also a progression into romanticism is evident. Structure • Sonata form – repeat of the exposition was predominantly used in the classical period • Exposition x 2: o 1st subject – b.1-43 o Bridge passage – b.44-58 o 2nd subject – b.59-94 o Codetta – b.95-124 • Development – b.125-247 • Recapitulation: o 1st subject – b.248-287 o Bridge passage – b.288-302 o 2nd subject – b.303-372 • Extended Coda – b.373-502 Pitch Melody: • Piece begins in C minor with several modulations throughout: o The second subject modulates to E flat major through the descending arpeggios in the bridge passage o The development is in F minor before modulating back to the tonic of C minor in the recapitulation o The second subject in the recapitulation is in C major, the tonic major o The piece is back to C minor in the coda and there is an extended tutti perfect cadence from bar 496 to the end o The modulations are of major and minor tonalities, a classical characteristic • From bar 6 there is the use of imitation and sequences in the throughout the strings before the whole orchestra restates the theme at bar 18.
The instruments include one piccolo, two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, four French horns, two trumpets, three trombones, one tuba, timpani, bass drum, triangle, cymbals, harp, first violins, second violins, violas, cellos, doubles basses. I will address the instrumentation, texture, and a visual painting of the piece. This piece consists of a wide variety of instruments the flutes and harp start the piece off. The flutes give the piece an allegro commodo non agitato feel. Mainly because they have a very gentle tone that gives the intro to the piece a less agitated sound.