Only the enzyme will fix the substrate because of the active sites on the enzyme. Once locked together, the enzyme can break down the substrate (Hudon-Miller, 2012c). An example of this is Sucrose. Sucrose is considered a regular table sugar. It is composed of two monosaccharaides: glucose and fructose.
Structure similar to substrate | Harmful noncompetitive enzyme inhibitor | C. Tie up metals | Feedback enzyme inhibition | B. Binds to allosteric site | Ribozyme | D. Catalytic RNA molecule | Question 5 Potentially, how many molecules of ATP can be generated by prokaryotes from the complete oxidation of glucose to CO2 and H2O? Answers: 38 Question 6 How many molecules of ATP are spent by prokaryotes in the oxidation of glucose to pyruvic acid? Answers: 2 Question 7 Although the production of ATP during fermentation is limited, its advantage over respiration is that in fermentation Answers: | The final electron acceptors could be either inorganic or organic molecules | | Glucose is completely oxidized to CO2 and H2O. | | There is not need of an external molecule to serve as a final electron acceptor | | The production of FADH2 and NADH is higher than in respiration | | Glucose is oxidized to ethanol.
4. The size of a cell is limited by the Surface-Area:Volume ratio, since this ratio influence the rate of entry and exit of substances into and out of cells. Cells are limited to small sizes so that their surface areas are large enough to let in essential material fast enough to meet their needs, and to allow waste materials to diffuse out fast enough to avoid the cells being poisoned by their own wastes. 5. Enzymes are a type of protein which speeds up the chemical reactions which occur within an organism by lowering the activation energy required to start the reaction.
C.) Eukaryotic organelles are enclosed by lipid membranes. There are those that have double-membrane compartments such as chloroplast and mitochondria among others. Single-membrane compartment organelles include endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. However, Ribosomes do not have a membrane. The breakdown of the membranes of these structures, affect the function of his heart cells because lysosomal enzymes which are normally bound safely inside vesicles will digest the plasma membranes and the membranes of the organelles.
C6 H12 O6 = 2C3 H6 O3 + 2ATP (lactate) This is a structure of ATP ATP contains sugar which is Ribose, a base which is Adenine and three phosphate groups. Biological systems transfer the energy in glucose to ATP because unlike glucose ATP releases its energy instantly in a single reaction and also the hydrolysis of ATP releases a small amount of energy, ideal for fuelling reactions in the body. Glucose is obtained from food; we eat pasta which is a carbohydrate which is then broken down into glucose by the digestive system. The process which breaks this down is known as catabolism, this is the breakdown of food components, breaking down
6 The energy related during these oxidation reactions is used to form adenosine triphosphate ( ATP ), the __energy currency of the cell. Name the two initials steps in glycolysis. 2 phosphates are added to the glucose molecule at the expense of the 2 molecules of ATP What are the three molecules that results? a 6 carbon sugar diphosphate molecule and 2 low energy adenosine diphosphate molecules or ADP What then occurs to the 6-carbon molecule? It splits in to two 3-carbon molecules The 3-carbon molecules are converted to pyruvate .
Lactase Buffer solutions 4,7,9 Enzymes are organic catalysts that control the rate of chemical reactions in cells while not being permanently altered themselves. In general, enzymes speed up the rate of reaction by lowering the activation energy required to start reactions. Lactase is an enzyme used by the body to hydrolyze lactose, a disaccharide unique to mammalian milk, into the monosaccharaides, glucose and galactose. Lactose has been shown to aid in the absorption of several minerals, including calcium, magnesium, and zinc. .
BIOL-110 Elements of Biology Assignment 1 Student Name: Part A: Multiple Choice Questions and Fill in the Blanks 1) A covalent chemical bond is one in which * c) Outer-shell electrons of two atoms are shared 2) Which of the following is not a weak molecular interaction? * a) A covalent bond 3) Polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins are similar in that they * b) Are synthesized from monomers by dehydration reactions. 4) Which of the following is a compartment that often takes up much of the volume of a plant cell? * b) Vacuole 5) The presence of cholesterol in the plasma membranes of some animals * a) Enables the membrane to stay fluid more easily when cell temperature drops 6) Which of the following types of molecules are the major structural
Arizona Questions-Metabolism 1. Correct! * Glycolysis leads to the production of ____________ and two molecules of ATP. In the absence of oxygen, fermentation leads to the production of ______________. Glycolysis plus the citric acid cycle can convert the carbons of glucose to _________ , storing the energy as ATP, _____________ and ___________.
When glucose polymerises to become cellulose, water is eliminated and the structure becomes: The H and OH groups are omitted for clarity. It must noted that: for bonding to occur, alternate glucose units must be inverted as shown above; this bonding produces a very linear molecule due to the geometry of the rings and the C-O-C angles. * Biomass – material produced by living organisms, mainly it is plant material though it also includes animal excreta and algae material. Cellulose is the major component of plant biomass. * Cellulose as a source of chemicals – starch, another polymer of glucose, can be used as an alternative source for petrochemical products but there is more cellulose produced in plants than starch.