Sociology examines how our behavior individually and in groups is influenced by social processes and what that means. In fact once you start seeing things with a sociological perspective – things will never be the same. It’s knowing how and why we do what we do that engages us with the world around us and makes us more effective agents for social change. However, sociologist C. Wright Mills describes sociology as “the intersection of biography and history?” A lot of you may wonder what he mean: well from my studying and perspectives; The reason why he say sociology is the interception of biography and history is because, Biography: happens to individuals and History: happens to society. For example, every
1773–1799) Sociology is a science of social interaction and social organization. In explaining social interaction and social organization, sociologists look at how people in groups construct attitudes, beliefs, values and behavior, and how these in turn influence social interaction and social organization. An understanding of social interaction and social organization allows sociologists to identify social problems and to suggest strategies for social change. (Cragun, R.T. and Cragun, D.,2011) Sociology advances in two ways. First, as a way of seeing, Sociology aims to go beyond commonsensical beliefs about how human beings as a group live and think.
I will look at a functional perspective and a Marxist perspective in detail. I will use work by Cunningham, J and Cunningham, S (2008) to back up my research along with other well-known experts on the subject. I will look at the social class of this family and the link to sociology. I will look at two aspects of this family’s life and how a sociologist would perceive this, I will look at sexuality and gender. Sociological imagination is learning think about the bigger picture of what is going on in someone’s life (C. Wright Mills, 1959).
The social action approach, argues that individuals experience the social world by interpreting their actions and interactions with others and the meaning they assign to social phenomena. The starting point for understanding society should be the individual as they are authors of their own ideas. Emphasis should be given to how shared meanings develop and how these influence the way individuals define, act and react to their environment. Opposing the social action approach are the structural theories. Structural theories such as functionalism and Marxism are macro (large scale), and deterministic: they see society as a real thing existing over and above us, shaping our ideas and behaviour – individuals are like puppets, manipulated by society.
Sociology and Anthropology Both sociologists and cultural anthropologists use similar research methods to support their scientific theories. Some examples of their research methods include historical research data, experiments, observation, surveys, interviews and comparative data. Sociologists study human societies and their social interactions in order to gain understanding of social situations and behaviors and to predict what will occur in the future (Tischler, 2007, Chapter 1). Cultural anthropologists research the inner workings and relationships among people within a society to better understand how and why people deal with challenges and live the way they do (Haviland, Prins, Walrath, & McBride, 2008). Sociological Research Methods Sociologists search to find repeating patterns within a society in order to better understand social phenomena, situations and social relations (Tischler, 2007, Chapter 1).
According to Emile Durkheim, the founder of modern sociology, each of these questions can be answered by the concept of social integration – the degree to which members of a society feel united by shared values and other social bonds. Durkheim takes this further through his theory of social facts which states that society shapes the way we act. As you will see, this theory provides the underpinning of the sociological contributions of Emile Durkheim that will be explored in this research paper. Scientific Approach Probably Durkheim’s greatest contribution was establishing sociology as a science through an approach called functionalism. This approach utilizes empirical data to speculate what needs, or social facts, contribute to maintaining a social system.
Sociology of education is mainly the study of educational structures in term of sociological perspective with the aim of understanding how educational institutions relate with the society either at macro or micro levels. In this essay we will discuss and evaluate Marxism and interactionism social theoretical perspectives in the sociology of education. History of the Sociology of Education Sociology as it is known today was due to industrial revolution and as the world become more industrialized also education expanded. Karl Marx was the first sociologist to link sociology with human behaviors but did not fully integrate his theories on capitalism and social class with education. However, he frequently referred education in writing but it was mainly based on class struggle and the of education that was been offered to children of working class and how it maintained and served as way of social dominance among the rich and ruling class (Hallinan, 2006).
In reading Invitation to Sociology, I found that Berger is consistently explaining the difference of the terms society, social, and social problems. Berger is saying that there are different levels to each of these three terms to which one can see behind and through our social structures. For me to have a better understanding of sociology, I found it necessary to define sociology in my own mind. To me, sociology is the study of society and the human behavior within it, without allowing my biases to overly influence what I see. Berger gives an example that helps me understand it better.
"Resistance to Social Change" Social change refers to any significant alteration over time in behavior patterns and cultural values and norms. By “significant” alteration, sociologists mean changes yielding profound social consequences. Examples of significant social changes having long-term effects include the industrial revolution, the abolition of slavery, and the feminist movement. social change, in sociology, the alteration of mechanisms within the social structure, characterized by changes in cultural symbols, rules of behaviour, social organizations, or value systems. Throughout the historical development of their discipline, sociologists have borrowed models of social change from other academic fields.
Karl Marx was a social theorist from the twentieth century, and he alleges that cause and effect are one of the most social actions that motivate us. He believed that research would help with the explanation of social phenomenon, and so could the non-empirical methods. He also believed that “society could be studied through the meaning and purpose that people attach to actions” (Vissing, 2011, p. 1.3). Karl Marx, in 1818-1883, developed the conflict theory and “argued that it is tension and conflict that motivate us to think and act differently” (Vissing, 2011, p. 1.3). Karl Marx.