His book defines each step and thoroughly explains how important the thought process is in developing our reasoning to justify our actions. It is vital to understand that not all actions are justified as virtuous and not all discernments are ethically sound (Tompkins). Carter expands on each step in his book and provides examples where there is a lack of integrity when one or another of the steps are
“Economists are ethical consequentialists: we judge actions and policies solely on the basis of their consequences/outcomes.” (Morey 4). To determine whether something is good or right in Economical Ethics you have to look at a few things such as: utility, cost benefit analysis, efficiency and externalities. Dexter has a preference for killing people. He works with his constraints such as the law to maximize his utility and not get caught. Because Dexter is
While Payne argues that there is a culture of poverty, Gorski states that, rather than a culture of poverty being existent, classism is that which permeates the classrooms and schools. Payne believes that impoverished students live by different rules and values than students of the middle and upper classes, such as how they see money, clothing, family structure, etc. Likewise, Gorski believes that impoverished students do have different values and goals than those of middle and upper clases, and he says that the rules found in schools do not often benefit those living in poverty, but benefit those living in middle and upper class. With regards to impoverished students’ values and goals, both tend to point to the idea that faculty in schools should help to reshape the values and goals of impoverished students. Payne stated that students should learn the “hidden rules” of the middle class from their educators so that they have another set of rules to use if they choose to do so.
The main on being labelling and teacher racism. An example of labelling can be if a student labels a student as 'bright' they are more likely to stick to this label and achieve higher grades. However this also means that teachers may label students due to their ethnic background without considering their actual level of cleverness. For example black students do not fit the ideal pupil silhouette and may therefore be labelled as a 'troublemaker leading them to not do as well as white pupils. Cecile Wright (1992) found that Asian pupils are also a target of labelling by teachers.
123.) states that the “everyday empiricism of common sense is filled with assumptions and stereotypes of one or another particular society;” this gives the impression that in society, things we accept as common sense are just something that is quite often widely accepted as truth, even though it may just be a stereotype. Common sense draws on people's “common” life experiences rather than scientific research. It is knowledge that we have learned from day to day situations. “...common sense determines what is seen and how it is to be explained.” (Mills, 2000, p.123.)
His goal in this chapter is to prove that based on the research he outlines on social psychology; situational forces play a major role in determining human’s actions. For this reason, Zimbardo argues that the vast majority of people, even inherently “good” human beings can do very evil things as a result of the situational forces that surround them. Critical Review Zimbardo (2008) begins the chapter by highlighting the key points in English Scholar C.S. Lewis’s book “The Inner Ring”. He agrees with Lewis’s idea that human beings are naturally motivated by the basic desire to be “in” and not “out”, and that this desire often causes an individual to cross the line between good and evil (Zimbardo 2008).
In the following essay, I will be addressing these questions in detail. Since most people, like myself, hold that we have a moral obligation to the needy, my defense would be in form of justifications rather than explanations. I will begin by quoting an argument Peter Singer made in his article “Practical Ethics”. Singer claims that “not to give all one possibly can to save people from starvation (or problems arising from disasters, in this case) is tantamount to murder”1. Of course his emphasis is too strong – he labels those who fail to give “murderers” – but the situation in such cases of disasters as hurricane is so urgent that such a label can pass.
“The Perils of Obedience” Obedience is defined as dutiful or submissive behavior with respect to another person or group of people. It is usually referred to as a positive aspect, but in the case of “The Perils of Obedience” by Stanley Milgram, in which obedience to authority causes other people harm, it can easily be argued as an extremely negative factor. In defense of her personal opinion about Milgram’s experiment, Diana Baumrind wrote “Review of Stanley Milgram’s Experiments on Obedience” to demonstrate that obedience is not always the right action to partake in. Although the sources have extremely different views of obedience, they both have several of the same subtopics, including validity, sympathy, and conformity. In “The Perils of Obedience”, Milgram was trying to prove a point that shows how far someone will go to be obedient to the authority.
“Race Cleansing in America” Peter Quinn Article Review 2.1 In Peter Quinn’s article, “Race cleansing in America”, he states that it was against the law for the mentally retarded, or the “feeble-minded” (Quinn, 82) to produce offspring. These people were looked down upon as criminals to society who should not bring into being a second generation of themselves. Quinn’s theory: the feeble-minded were weak and the rich, as well as society, stepped all over them. Sterilization was the method that was introduced to end “imbeciles” (Quinn, 82), which would lead to a greater America. “It is better for all the world,” Justice Holmes asserted in Buck v. Bell, “if instead of waiting to execute degenerate offspring for crime, or to let them starve for their imbecility, society can prevent those who are manifestly unfit from continuing their kind.
Social contract theory is the belief that natural existence without a binding agreement among those who live together can create danger for all concerned. Many philosophers had a difference of opinion concerning the laws of nature. This paper will summarize the major differences of social contract theory and present John Locke’s principles associated with social contract theory. The paper will also illuminate the principles impressed in the minds of the United States Citizens through the United States Bill of Rights. Natural law includes ethics and morals defined as “sanctions that regulate the behavior of individuals and groups on the basis of universal traits and common experiences” (Souryal, 2007, p. 86).