Sociology 101 Summary on Soc. Theories

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Ludmila Verkovod Sociology 101 Summary on Soc. Theories Auguste Comte- Developed term “Sociology” – the study of society. “ No social fact can have scientific meaning till it is connected with some other social facts.” Theory of “Positivism”- when scientific method applied to the social world. His point was : just as the scientific method had revealed the law of gravity, sociology would uncover the laws in society. Comte did not do a research. In my opinion, it might has some point of connection: science and society, but not relatively depending on each other. Herbert Spencer- is known by his theory of “ the survival of the fittest” or Social Darwinism, when fittest member produce a more advanced society. As generation pass, a society’s most capable and intelligent members survive, while less capable die out. Society goes from a lower form to higher forms. This theory, in my opinion, had a poor base, relating principle of strong people and weak. People supposed to help each other, not stump on each other. Karl Marks- thought that people should try to change society –by revolution. Economics is a central force in social change. He believed that the engine of human history is class conflict: wealthy and poor: they are enemies. People will work according to their abilities and receive their goods according to their needs. His theory was one the roots for revolution in 1918 in Russia. They were trying to reach socialism. Max Weber added a “material factor” in his theory. Changes in religion brought about capitalism. His conclusion was that religion the key factor in the rise of capitalism. Financial success is a blessing from God. Can’t be agree on that due to the source of information Bible doesn’t support that opinion. Emile Durkheim- His goal was to get sociology recognized as a separate academic discipline. Second goal was to show how social

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