Sociological Issues in Sport Essay

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Introduction This essay critically reviews the journal article 'Fans, homophobia and masculinities in association football: evidence of a more inclusive environment' in the British journal of sociology. Firstly, the article will be summarised and its purpose defined, briefly analyse whether it was resourceful and how affective their source/s were. The purpose of the article is to explore fans views towards masculinity and homosexuality in Association football, this was measured by gathering 3,500 response in two phase online part open – ended and closed questionnaire surveys, the article also compared and contrasted two masculinity theories (hegemony and inclusive) which had an inside look on boys, men and culture from the 19th century to the 20th century which shows in the 20th century there are evidence of a decreased in culture homophobia and a shifting pattern from hegemonic masculinity to inclusive masculinity. Hegemonic masculinity theory is defines as ‘a theory informed by radical feminism, asserts that people will act in ways that reinforce male privilege by supporting conformity to an idealized version of masculinity, even when it may not be in their best interest…’ (Cheng, 1999; Connell, 1989; Hearn, 2004; Jefferson, 2002; Johnson, 1997; Kimmel & Messner, 2001; Levant, 1996; Whitehead & Barrett, 2001, p.31). This differentiates certain aspects of feminism and masculinity #such like muscles, physical strength and power. The terminology used to define Inclusive masculinity theory ‘theoretically describes, the social process concerning the emergence of archetype of masculinity that undermines the principles of orthodox (read hegemonic) masculine value – yet one that is also esteemed among male peers’ Anderson (2005b). However, in the author/s proposed that two FA officials Gordon Taylor and Max Clifford were seen as keeping homophobia in the “dark

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