Chapter 10 Study Guide Terms: Knossos Aristotle Pericles Socrates Salamis Alexander Polis Philip II Plato Solon Stoics Persian Wars Peloponnesian War Marathon Antigonid Empire Ptolemaic Empire Seleucid Empire Epicureans Skeptics Pericles Philip of Macedon Alexander of Macedon Seleucus Sappho Antigonus Ptolemy Aeschylus Sophocles Euripides Aristophanes Athens Sparta Possible Essay Questions Topics 1. Arrian proposed that Alexander the Great “had an uncanny instinct for the right course.” What were Alexander’s main goals? Was his ambition his greatest strength or most dangerous weakness? 2. Socrates believed that “no evil can happen to a good man, either in life, or after death.” How would Socrates define a good man?
It was fought at the pivotal point in the conflict when things were looking grim for Greece, with Athens abandoned and only the Peloponnese remaining free. The engagement was supposed to be an easy victory for the Persians: their ships were better-designed and more numerous. Their crews were also more experienced and better-trained. However, it was Greek tactics and Persian over-confidence that changed the course of the battle, the result of which was thought by many to be a foregone
Preserving artifacts is great for Greeks economy because it attracts millions of tourists each year and makes thousands of jobs. Greece attracts so many tourists every year because of their techniques to conserve their ancient monuments and artifacts and the acropolis in Athens has even been described by UNESCO as “the greatest architectural and artistic complex bequeathed by Greek antiquity to the world”. Sculptures from ancient Greece is also something that is world-wide known and admired until today. Artists that study sculptures and ancient art will always search for Greece as a primary resource of arts and ancient history. The Greek economy may not be doing so well nowadays but even tough they lack money in various areas they never let their cultural artifacts in a bad state.
What purpose did it serve? - How was Greek art different from other civilizations of the past (hint: compare Greek art to Ancient Egyptian art)? What did Greek artists focus on emphasizing? - How did Greeks revolutionize theater? - What are the main differences between Spartan and Athenian society?
3. Research the Oracle at Delphi and other forms of divination in the Greek world. How did the Ancient Greeks use oracles to communicate with the gods, explain & predict events? 4. The Olympic Games integrated and celebrated Greek ideas about athletic competition, the body beautiful, and honoring the gods.
Originally, the chief deities of Vesta, Jupiter, Mars and Venus did not have mythology in Rome (with many being quite animistic). As cultural fusion continued through the years, the Roman pantheon eventually made inroads to allow for compatibility between Roman and Greek religions, though this did not always work. Mars, the god of war, was one of the most important gods in
He wrote in the 5th Century BC, some 200 years after Lycurgus is alleged to have lived. Such a large time span between the life of Lycurgus and Herodotus writing about him castes further doubt as the Spartan did not record history and everything was passed down orally. Herodotus' writings of Lycurgus are based around Greek writings of the figure and oral accounts from Spartans who retold the legend, yet Herodotus did not write what people said verbatim and everything he wrote about Lycurgus was mainly from his perspective. Also many modern historians’ especially historians such as A. Andrews who wrote The Greek Tyrant said “The very existence of Lycurgus is open to doubt" and H. Michael who wrote Dimensions of military History wrote "If there is a real Lycurgus, we know nothing of him". Many believe instead that he was just a fictional character made to fuel thoughts and strength of the Great Rhetra that is attributed to his name or that he is in fact was just a prominent figure in the forming of the Great Rhetra and other personalities have been merged to form the person that was written
Greek music includes the lyre, pipes, and singing, and around 500 BC gradually developed branches like Greek plays (which always involved music) and Greek philosophy, which tried to figure out how music and numbers related to each other. Architecture includes houses, religious buildings like temples and tombs, and public building like city walls, theaters, stadia, and stoas. Sculpture includes small figurines and life-size statues, but also relief sculptures which were on the sides of buildings, and also tombstones. We have very little Greek painting from the Classical period; most of what we have is from the Bronze Age. The paintings were painted on walls, as decoration for rooms, like murals or wallpaper.
Beowulf, the Great Epic Hero There are two lengendary epic poems that have great epic heroes. The first is The Iliad, written by author Homer in 850 b.c., and the second is Beowulf, from the time period 750 a.d., whose author is unknown. Both of the poems tell a story about epic heroes. Between the two heroes, I think that Beowulf appears to show more traits of an epic hero than Achilles. One reason why I believe Beowulf is brave is because he fought Grendel with his bare hands.
In Boeotia, the homeland of Hesiod, a tradition persisted that the Muses had once been three in number. Diodorus Siculus quotes Hesiod to the contrary, observing: Writers similarly disagree also concerning the number of the Muses; for some say that there are three, and others that there are nine, but the number nine has prevailed since it rests upon the authority of the most distinguished men, such as Homer and Hesiod and others like them.  Diodoros also states (Book I.18) that Osiris first recruited the nine Muses, along with the Satyrs or male dancers, while passing through Ethiopia, before embarking on a tour of all Asia and Europe, teaching the arts of cultivation wherever he went. The Muses, the personification of knowledge and the arts, especially literature, dance and music, are the nine daughters of Zeus