Member of the lowest caste would not have been able to pay a fine or secure a guarantor so they would lose their civil rights, be prohibited from practising a profession or being employed in any position of trust. Also they may be excluded from the participation in religious rites. Isolation within the community would be great and would act as a deterrent as the threat of exclusion was a major factor in upholding the law. As in Celtic Britain we still issue fines as a form of punishment, if fines are not paid the court can issue an order to seize the value of goods of the fine. We have community service rather than redemption by working on the land.
If the Celtic offender could not pay then the responsibility fell on a family member with them having power to take assets, Very much like how the bail bond system works today. Also a common approach to punishment was and still is humiliation. Humiliation within the local community was to make it known that the offender had broke the law. Celtics were sent out to work the land as repayment for the crime committed. In modern times offenders are given a community service orders to repay their time back
I don’t want to stay cause they might beat me up” (173). An innocent man was ordered to leave to a different town or else the cops threated to beat him up merely because he was native they felt like they had superior power over him to threaten to beat him up. Prejudice is an international issue and in everyway treating a human being as an unequal due to physical appearance and personal costumes is absurd. The discrimination that takes place in both short stories negatively forces change, which is one of the factors for the loss off culture. In order to fit in with society native culture is demolished.
The Celt's had a highly developed sense of rights and duties and this would be measured in caste's. Those who had transgressed against the law, would have lost all their rights and privileges and seen as the lowest caste. Offenders would also be prohibited from being employed in any position of trust or practising a profession. There were no prisons in Celtic Britain and it was up to the individual to redeem themselves. The isolation an offender felt would of been greater than that felt in today's prisons and therefore the offender would be reluctant to repeat the experience and also act as a deterrent to others.
Puritan society came down hard on lawbreakers and held to strict traditions set on the interpretations of the bible by the Magistrates. Some may argue that Hester was “let off the hook” because, in Puritanical law, anyone who committed adultery would have been put to death (The Book of the General Lawes and Libertyes Concerning the Inhabitants of the Massachusetts…pg.8). Either way, members of the society in The Scarlet Letter vehemently followed laws that may have impeded on their free will out of the fear of punishment, loss of status socially and spiritually, and in order to preserve tradition. Mainly, Puritans obeyed oppressive laws because, like most people, they wanted to avoid punishment, especially in Puritan society because most of those punishments consisted of death. People in Hester Prynne’s society were scared for their lives and some couldn’t even trust their families not to turn them in for an offence.
It also showed emotional and verbal abuse in the form of name calling. This was an inhumane and diabolic mistreatment of vulnerable individuals unable to defend themselves. Winterbourne appears to have made decisions based on profits and returns, over and above decisions about the effective and humane delivery of assessments and treatments. Where were the staff who should have been reporting these crimes to management , if management was not listening then they should have been reported to the authorities and organisations, such as social services and CQC that is what they are there for. Staff who had no involvement in the actions taken towards the residents, but failed to comply with the agreed ways of working and report what they knew was wrong is just as much to blame as those who were involved.
Punishment has taken many different forms throughout history. This essay looks at how punishment of offenders today has elements of Celtic and Roman approaches. According to Celtic philosophy of punishment, deterrence was used as a measure to prevent people from committing an offence as it is today. In Celtic times honour amongst the kinship was important and criminals were cast the lowest social status losing this honour and civil privilege. This loss of privilege still pertains to Britain today and although our prisons provide the incapacitation of offenders, social isolation in Celtic times had similar impact with loss of property, profession, religious rites and confinement to the tribal territory suffering their dishonour within their community.
the ones at the bottem of this system were the ones who had acted against the law. They would not go to prison, however they would lose certain rights and have to stay in their village. They would lose certain religious rights and become isolated from the community. They could also be fined. They would have to provide a guarantor for this.
Thieves had their fingers or hands cut off. Adulterers had an A branded on their foreheads so that they would be discouraged from committing any further adultery. In some instances, banishing was used. The accused would be banished into the wild, left alone to try to survive. Banishing offenders ensured that the crime could not be repeated and often resulted in death because the person could not survive on his or her own.
If someone fails to perform within the requirement of society, he/she will be disapproved and have to face the consequences of his act. For example, people who commit murder are faced with the punishment of life imprisonment because the act of killing is strictly prohibited in a society. Through the fear of various social sanctions, people would rather restrain their passions and give up their liberty of doing something they desire but may be against the rules of society such as taking drugs. Therefore, it is true to some extent that the choices human beings have are governed and controlled by the structure at all times. While Marxists suggest that it is the economic class background that determines your life chances.