Social Housing History

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Social Housing History 1914 - 2004 Introduction Since the beginning of the 20th century, there have been major changes in tenure. Owner occupation has grown from 10 per cent to 70 per cent, private renting has declined from 90 per cent to 11 per cent; and a large social housing sector, mainly represented by council housing, grew to about a third before its reduction to less than a quarter. This essay will discuss the reason for changes in tenure and focus on the main policy drivers that caused these changes. Pre 1915 During the Industrial Revolution, the people living in rural areas migrated to the town and cities to find work. Private landlords provided housing at affordable rates. These houses included back to back housing, tenement blocks and cellars (Conway, 2000). The housing the private sector provided was of poor quality, with no sanitation or running water, most of the housing was largely overcrowded. Disease was the norm and in 1832 and 1849 there were major cholera epidemics which affected the middle classes as well as the poor. Due to the absence of any form of state provision, private landlords provided the majority of housing. But, the Industrial Revolution brought about several social reformers and industrialists namely Robert Owen, Edward Ackroyd, Sir Titus Salt and Lord Leverhulme, who demonstrated what could be achieved in relation to decent accommodation on a relatively small scale. Only the working classes benefited from these schemes, but the lower classes living in the cities were living in appalling conditions. 1915 – 1939 The increase in owner occupation started from the time period between the first and second world wars when the Local Authority started to provide loans for house purchase and grants for building private residencies. This lasted for 10 years from 1923. During this time many more people were given the
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