Social Exchange Theory Social exchange theory is a psychological theory; suggest that human beings make social decisions based on perceived costs and benefits. This suggestion asserts that people evaluate all social relationships to determine the benefits they will get out of them. The social exchange theory uses economic terms such as benefit, gain, cost, and payment to describe social situations. According to this supposition, people consciously and unconsciously evaluate every social situation in terms of what they will have to put into it, and relate this to the benefits they think they may get out of it. According to social exchange theory, people make these decisions based on their individual satisfaction level within the relationship.
Modeling Theory is a form of social learning theory that asserts that people learn how to act by observing others. (Schmalleger, 231) 5. Behavior Theory is a psychological perspective that posits that individual behavior that is rewarded will increase in frequency, while that which is punished will decrease. (Schmalleger, 234) 6. Sociological Theories examine institutional arrangements within society and the interaction between and among social institutions, individuals and groups as they affect socialization and have an impact on social behavior.
The paper will briefly look at the purpose of the assessment and in conclusion discuss the benefits of the analysis. Purpose It is important for individuals to develop a comprehensive view of themselves based on the assessment of other people’s view of them. It is doubly so for persons who aspire to be leaders of others. Having a true picture of how others perceive one is very advantageous to individuals interested in self growth. “The basic premise of the process is that individuals with different relationships to the person being rated have different perspectives on that person's job performance.
How can an organization communicate the value of a benefits package? 2. When determining an employee’s compensation package, what is more important: work experience or education? Provide an example that supports your choice and a rationale that validates your position. 1.
I believe if I have a strong sense of self-efficacy I can better help clients to develop a strong sense of self-efficacy if they do not have one. For example, a client may be struggling with what career to pursue that will help better support his or her family. Some clients prefer to pursue a protected career in which they were exposed to by family or friends. This may limit their options because his or her desire is influenced by their self-efficacy or the confidence he or she may have performing in a particular domain. If a client does not have a strong sense of self-efficacy for a specific domain, he or she will not consider it as a possibility.
Research has shown that incentive compensation programs are used to assist in the definition of goals to motivate employees to achieve the goals necessary (Santone, Sigler, & Britt, 1993). Because of this, performance incentives and profit sharing are two incentives that will be offered to employees to assist in their productivity. The profit sharing will include all employees and be based on a percentage of sales to be determined at a later date. Evidence shows that workers whose pay is somehow linked to profit
Having experience in a similar role is also more important when recruiting rather than when retaining because once you have employed staff they will become experienced in that role, whereas when you are recruiting it is a new start which could be more difficult to settle in and do the job efficiently. Another employability skill is effectiveness in meeting personal and team targets. This would be more effective for retention than recruitment because when you recruit someone you will find out how well they meet targets whereas when you are choosing who to keep, you will be able to compare the staffs that meet targets better. Giving and accepting criticism is more important than motivating and supporting your co-workers. This is because once you are able to take and give constructive criticism, then you will be able to support them, and if you cant give them feedback it will be impossible to be a supportive co-worker.
• Reward-personal Goals Relationship (also known as Valence) – The Higher the reward, the higher satisfaction Each factor has its own characteristics that are further defined in below but essentially they boil down to the philosophy that an individual will be motivated to do something, as well as, act a certain way if their actions will benefit themselves. Vroom suggests that individuals are motivated when they believe higher levels of effort will lead to better performance and will be rewarded with desired outcomes (Redmond, 2007). Expectancy theory is classified as a process theory of motivation due to the face that it believes that individual perceptions of their environment and that they act on that environment as a repercussion of their personal expectations (Scholl, 2002). Expectancy probability: The first component of the Expectancy Theory is the Expectancy probability. With the Expectancy probability, it is believed that a person’s performance is based on their experiences.
Incentives: The Roots and Core of Economics Economics is a social science that analyzes how society produces, distributes, and consumes its resources such as goods and services. The tools of economics can be easily applied to subjects of everyday life. According to Steven D. Levitt in his Freakonomics, economics at its root is essentially the study of incentives: something that induces people to act. Levitt illustrates that economic, and even social and moral decisions, are made by comparing the costs and benefits of incentives. Incentives are offered to people in order to induce them to make certain choices or behave in a certain way.
THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN UTILITARIANISM AND CONSEQUENTIALISM Utilitarianism and consequentialism are closely related but they are not the same. These two views have different approaches. Utilitarianism is a theory that evaluates happiness, welfare and well being. It states that everyone want to be happy and avoid any possible pain to the highest percentage of people. It focuses on what the goals are and how they can be achieved.