These theories are different in determining factors that cause criminal behavior. The theories have played a role in different policies we have in place in the criminal justice system. I will explain the three theories of social structure before going into how they play a role in pelican bay state prison; war zone. Social disorganization theory which depicts social change, social conflict, and lack of social consensus as the root causes of crime and deviance (Schmalleger, 2012). This theory focuses on the lack of social control, gang activity, disadvantaged neighborhoods and the many conflicting social values as factors that cause people to commit crime.
Using material from Item A and elsewhere, assess different sociological explanations for victimisation in society There are many different sociological explanations for victimisation in society. First of all the UN defines victims as those who have suffered harm mentally, physically or emotionally such as suffering or loss in financial ways where as writer Neil Christie disagrees and goes on to say that the belief that the victim is socially constructed. By this he means that the portrayal of a victim comes from the media, public and criminal justice system as a young child or an elderly person who is the target of an attack by a stranger. Linking to Item A, positivist victimology is defined by Miers as having three features such as it aims to identify victims who have contributed to their own victimisation. Also two other features are mentioned like it aims to identify the factors that produce patterns in victimisation and how it focuses on interpersonal crimes of violence.
Neighborhood Characteristics and Crime: Examining Social Cohesion and Residential Stability in Transition Zones Toyin Isijola Kennesaw State University April 30, 2012 Abstract: This research applies social disorganization theory in examining the relationship between social cohesion, residential stability, and crime in several communities in the transition zones around Atlanta, Georgia. Social disorganization theory ascribes several characteristics that influence crime behavior in transition zones; they include physical decay, broken families, abandoned buildings, high residential mobility, low socio-economic status, racial heterogeneity, and a lack of social cohesion among residents. This research tests the hypothesis suggested by the social disorganization theory that transition zones with high crime rates are more likely to have high residential mobility and lack of social cohesion, an important aspect of informal social control. In order to test such a hypothesis, this study will measure social cohesion and residential mobility in several neighborhoods around Atlanta. The Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) Uniform Crime Data (UCR) is used to assess the crime rate for each of the neighborhoods.
In this research paper I will analyze the break down the officially recognized races in the US, crimes specifically relate to these urban areas that are not present in more rural and suburban areas, finally how are crimes handled both at the judicial and executive levels in poverty-stricken communities as opposed to upper class communities. All communities are affected by crime and the criminal justice system designed to prevent it. However, impoverished urban areas with a large minority population are disproportionally impacted. Why is that? In order to be able to answer this, you must first examine a few additional questions.
There are three major types of Social Structure Theory; Social Disorganization, Strain Theory, and Culture Conflict Theory. The one that is going to be focused on is the Culture Conflict Theory. This theory “sees root cause of crime in a clash of values between variously socialized groups over what is acceptable or proper behavior” (Schmalleger, p. 153). “Senseless Hate Crime” discusses the fact that there were several social groups involved in this case. These different groups consisted of: the skin heads, the police department, the social group the victim belonged to, and the majority of the social society in the Jackson Heights neighborhoods.
Anomic theory is considered a sociological theory that tries to explain the pattern of crimes through macro level of analysis. Criminals commit crime on the basics that abnormal conditions and their surroundings cause them to have to act on it. There have been assumptions that poor commit more crimes than others. Based on several analysis crime are generally committed based on needs rather than wants. Anomie theory provides an explanation of the concentration of crime.
Racial Disparity in Sentencing Racial disparity in sentencing can cause problems within a community. Public outcry can stir tension between the police and the community, people from different socioeconomic backgrounds, and can even cause riots, like in the case of Rodney King vs. the L.A. police department. This is why it is important for the justice system to be aware of the disparities in sentencing, and make an effort to fix the problem. Before the problem can be fixed the problem needs to be identified. The idea behind this research is to try and point out some of the disparities in sentencing, and possibly offer some potential ways to reduce the problem.
Drawing a conclusion regarding what ethic group is targeted the most can be based on causes and correlates of racial disparity. Some of the identifiable causes of disparity within the criminal justice system are legislative decisions, high crime rates, racial bias, and inequitable access to resources. As professionals, the criminal justice system can address disparity and discrimination issues by addressing citizens of the community to influence political processing. The professionals in the criminal justice system such as law makers may choose to use discretion in regard to political or social context in an effort to reduce
City Demographics and Crime Profile Heide M. Banks, Shayla Blair, Neil Lammons, Daniel Stevens, Maria Torres AJS/542 April 14, 2014 Marcela Morales Abstract The effects of crime are serious for a society. Unfortunately, most cities and towns in the United States experience some form of illicit behavior by their citizens. Information concerning the number of vandalisms, burglaries, assaults, and murders of an area can sway prospective buyers from purchasing homes or businesses from settling in a select community. Some believe that urban areas struggle with higher crime rates than suburban areas. Historically, crowded, low-income neighborhoods were thought of as crime capitals.
The methodology of their studies was based on the comparisons of cities with high and low levels of segregation and the effects on the society based on the changes in those levels of segregation. study gives credence to the argument that the isolation of the black community was a driving force for the concentrations of poverty within black urban neighborhoods. Economic dislocation is held responsible for the many of the societal problems that these communities grapple with. It is concisely argued that the withdraw of economic resources within the black urban communities were instrumental in the creation of what they call the “underclass.” It was through this economic restructuring, of the cities in which the majority of African-Americans lived, that the opportunities for a large demographic effectively disappeared. The trends of isolation of poor communities demonstrate the negative effects of a downward spiral of poverty that continually worsens its