In order to determine social coordination/organization, Benedict claims, “we need detailed information about contrasting limits of behaviors and the motivations that are dynamic in one society and not in another” (229). This means that it is of the upmost importance that, in order to eliminate and organize aspects of society, we need to understand what has functioned. To do this, “situational results” (236) are necessary. These results have the ability to predetermine a specific mode of conduct, as well as “a set of tendencies” (236) in society. But in order to completely structure society and culture, “selection is the first requirement” (237).
These combine to form the infrastructure and the superstructure i.e. education, politics, norms and values all support the dominant system determined by economic factors” Haralambos, M & Holborn, M (2000) Marxism believed that there was class conflict between the bourgeoisies (upper class/owners of land, factories etc) and the Proletariat (the working class/middle class). The Marxism theory was also a macro sociological theory as it views society in the ‘bigger picture’. The functionalist theory is different in the way that it is a consensus theory; this means that everything in society functions as individual parts that as a whole create society. Functionalists look at society like the human body; both human parts and parts of society have certain needs that need to be met if they are to survive.
The evolutionary approach argues that gender role division is a consequence of the adaptation to the challenges and circumstances faced by our ancestors. This suggests that the role differences we observe are more a product of our biological inheritance and evolution than social factors acting on our behavior. As evolutionary theory is a biological approach to gender development, it suggests that our genes have coded aspects of human behavior because they were or are adaptive. However a debate to this approach is the nature vs. nurture approach, nature supporting the evolutionary approach being that we have evolved through survival and adaptation to the situations and therefore passing on the adaptive genes of the survivors. Nurture on the other hand is a view, is a view proposed by the social approach suggesting that behavior is affected by socialization and environment.
At the same time, the biological sciences were revealing the mysteries of bodily function and evolutionary ideas of survival that created controversy and inspired ideas from philosophers. Consequently, a number of social philosophers used the human body as a comparison to society. Philosophers came up with the idea of “Organic Analogy”; the idea that society, like the body, is a system of parts. Just like bodily health is measured by observing if all of its parts
Functionalism is a macro theory, which looks at society as a whole rather than focuses on each individual. It is a theory that concentrates on the harmony between social institutions in society that is based on a consensus view rather than a conflict view as a Marxism theory. As a comparison to society as a whole, Functionalists use an organic analogy as an example. Each organ of the human body has a different job to do and if one part became ill or diseased, the rest could be contaminated or will produce changes in other parts. Similarly the operation of any society is dependent on its social institutions as they provide vital functions which maintain harmony, stability and solidarity within a society.
Accessing the relevance of Functionalism in today’s society Functionalism is a sociological theory seeking to explain society and the way it changes (Giddens, 2009). This essay will explain functionalist theory and use it to describe an organisation within society followed by common critiques functionalist theory receives. Functionalist’s view society as a social system of interconnected parts, a term called organic analogy that emphasises evolutionary laws (Giddens, 2009). In this model, Herbert Spencer viewed society as being similar to a body (Giddens, 2009). The numerous organs in the body work together to keep the entire system functioning and regulated, equally the various parts of society for example health care and education work together to keep the entire society functioning and regulated(Giddens, 2009).
Evaluate two theories which seek to explain the development of attachment. Your evaluation must include reference to the nature-nurture debate. Discuss the long-term impact of early experiences on later development. Is our psychological behaviour a result from our genes? Or could it be because of the environment we are brought up into.
Gerhard Lenski coating theory is an attempt to unify the conflict and factionalism into a single entity within the framework of evolutionary theory. Pulling away from a radical conflict theory postulates Gerhard Lenski obtained hakiakat society, the use of coercion in stratification system and the degree to which social conflicts gave birth to differences. Understand the difference between ideology and stratification Ideology is a person’s cultural beliefs that justify social stratification; Ideology is the link between culture and stratification. Usually the ruling group set the fundamental ideological values and they tend to accommodate the interest of the society’s ruling groups. (Marger, Pg.28).
Culture is defined as the learned, shared behaviour of the members of a society including values, norms and meanings. It’s a focal point of our being and has the ability to unite or damage a society and furthermore a nation. There are many theories surrounding the importance and functionality of culture and in this essay, I will be assessing the Functionalists’ theories and contrasting it with alternative sociological points of view. Similar to their theory of socialization, Item A reveals the functionalist theory of everything in society performing a function in order to create a value consensus. Durkheim is a firm supporter of this theory and believes that social order is held together by attitudes of solidarity which play the role of ensuring the survival of a well integrated society in which everything and everybody is a piece of a jigsaw that fits together to create a bigger picture.
through the economy), integration (socialising members into the shared values and goals of society, e.g. through education and the media) and latency (maintaining society through reproduction of its members). Functionalists describe society using an organic analogy and comparing it to a biological organism. Parsons argues that society and the human body are