When these needs of the child are not met, they develop a sense of mistrust not only in themselves, but in others. They tend to see the world as threatening, unpredictable and hostile. 2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt. The second stage takes place roughly between 18 months through age 3.
Reinforcement is used to help increase the probability that a specific behavior will occur in the future by delivering a stimulus immediately after a response or behavior is exhibited Each category has benefits when appropriately used, but can easy turn into abuse or neglect. Three major types of reinforcement are physical, verbal, and resource driven, each can be manipulated into positive or negative. In today’s society is it frowned upon to physically discipline your children, either spanking or smacking. It is viewed as a barbaric action. However unpopular it is, distinct differences can be observed between children who have been physically negatively reinforced and those who have not.
If trust develops successfully, the child gains confidence and security in the world around him and is able to feel secure even when threatened. Unsuccessful completion of this stage can result in an inability to trust, and therefore an sense of fear about the inconsistent world. It may result in anxiety, heightened insecurities, and an over feeling of mistrust in the world around them. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt. Between the ages of one and three, children begin to assert their independence, by walking away from their mother, picking which toy to play with, and making choices about what they like to wear, to eat, etc.
* Adult relationships = reflect the security/insecurity attachment styles of early childhood. 3. Deprivation of Attachment * Children become withdrawn and frightened when they are deprived of attachment and may not produce speech correctly. * Child abuse = physical, social, and psychological distress. * Extensive time in day care = increased aggression and defiance.
Erikson’s Stages of Development Stage|Ages|Basic Conflict|Summary| Infancy |1 to 2 years|Trust vs. Mistrust|The child, well - handled, nurtured, and loved, develops trust and security and a basic optimism. Badly handled, she/he becomes insecure and mistrustful. | Early Childhood |2 to 3 years|Autonomy vs. Same and Doubt|Children need to progress logic of personal control over bodily skills and a sense of independence. Achievement of this results in an emotion of autonomy; and a failure results in the feeling of shame and doubt.
School Age 6-11 years Industry vs. Inferiority Children need to cope with the new social and academic demands. Success leads to a sense of competence, while failure results in feelings of inferiority. Adolescence 12-18 years Identity vs. Role Confusion Teens need to develop a sense of self and personal identity. Success leads to an ability to stay true to yourself, while failure leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self. Young Adulthood 19-40 years Intimacy vs.
The final 12% were ‘insecure-resistant’. They would be uneasy around their mother and upset when she left the room. They tried to resist strangers and were quite difficult to comfort when their mother returned. The study shows that there are significant individual differences between infants attachments (i.e. there are different types of attachments.)
There is a solution with each crisis and that is the synthesis between the two opposing poles. Each stage has positive pole and a negative pole and possible synthesis (solution) to the crisis. The eight stages are as follows: 1. Basic trust vs. Mistrust (hope) This stage is established in the infants first year of life and the goal is to be acquainted with the surroundings. If this is not achieved the infant will, as a result, experience mistrust.
If negative responses towards the child’s questions are shown from the parents or carer, then the child may begin to develop feelings of guilt for showing an interest. A healthy balance between initiative and guilt is needed and when this stage is completed successfully the child will begin to understand their purpose. My sister and I are a year
They try to perfect some of their skills they already know. If they are encouraged they will develop self-confidence, if they are discourage they will doubt the abilities and feel inferior. Identity vs. Confusion; this stage occurs