In What Ways Did Black Americans Secure Improved Civil Rights: 1945-1964? Black Americans had often been looked down upon by White Americans and always suffered racial prejudice. Their struggle for equal racial rights had begun from the end of slavery in 1865, only until the late 1960’s did significant improvement was made. Following the events and ending of World War II, Black Americans began what would become known as the Civil Rights Movement. In 1951, the father of a black student named Linda Brown sued the Board of Education because a white school had prevented Brown from attending a school which was only seven blocks away, compared to the segregated black school she was attending which was more than seven blocks away from her home.
However, many southern states found ways around the laws to disenfranchise the black populations. They did this by introducing a ‘Grandfather Clause’, which is that only people whose grandfather voted, gave them the ability to vote. Also literacy test was another method used, which in most ways wasn’t made fairly and even well educated people were disenfranchised and not allowed to vote. However, in 1946 President Truman established The President’s Committee on ‘Civil rights’, producing a report examining the experiences of racial minorities in America. The report was called ‘To Secure These Rights’, this report highlighted the problems facing African Americans and proposed radical changes to make American society better.
The Supreme Court argued that the segregation of education had a negative effect on those who were black as it made them feel less worthy and could influence low self-esteem among those who were black. The Supreme Court realised other important things such as the fact that America was changing as were the attitudes of some Americans as there was a growth in black middle class, they also realised that for over 60 years the Southern States had failed to provide education that was actually equal, they became aware that the education that they were providing for blacks did not meet the ideals that they were fighting for in the Cold War and lastly the verdict of the supreme court was reached because of a change of leadership in the Supreme Court, the new leader Earl Warren was much more sympathetic towards civil rights than the
Many Southern states were segregated, they followed the supreme courts decision in 1896; 'Separate but equal' this meant that they were still segregated but blacks had equal rights. Segregation was the separation of white people from black, some states tried to keep control over black people's segregation by; 'Jim crow' laws which kept black people segregated/separated from white, this involved separate schools, toilets and drinking fountains. Desegregation had become a problem in the 1950's, largely because of the racial hatred of white southerners towards blacks, this racial hatred had originated from the attitudes of white people towards black people after slavery was abolished in 1864, many southern states had 'Jim crow' laws which discriminated against African Americans. However, in 1954 the Brown family challenged these laws by suing the city school board for forbidding their 8 year old daughter, who was black, from attending the white school which was nearby, instead Linda Brown was forced to attend the segregated school which was a long distance away. The Brown family's case was brought to the Supreme Court by the NAACP; they were an organisation which fought for the rights of coloured people.
When the U.S. District Court for the District of Kansas heard their case, the NAACP argued that segregated schools gave the message to black children that they weren’t equal, and naturally inadequate. The board the segregated schools prepared them for their life under future segregation, and that segregation was not necessarily harmful to blacks, saying that they can succeed under those circumstances. After agreeing with Brown the segregated schools were damaging to blacks, but taking into account that no Supreme Court ruling had overturned the Plessy versus Ferguson case, they decided to rule in favor of the Board. Brown overrode the decision of the District of Kansas and went to the Supreme Court. They combined their cases with many others in various states.
She had to walk 20 blocks to school even though there was a school for white people two blocks from her home. The NAACP helped her father to bring a legal case against the education board. On 19 May 1954 the court declared that segregation was against the law and the constitution of the USA. The Board of Education of Topeka and every other education board were forced to bring segregation to an end. But many schools continued to refuse to implement this, and by 1956, in six southern states, not a single black child was attending any school where there were white children.
What was the significance of ‘Brown v Topeka’, 1954? Brown v Topeka was an event carried out during the time of racism and segregation across America; the court case was brought up as some black Americans believed being segregated was unconstitutional. The court case started because a father (Oliver Brown) was annoyed that his daughter was denied an education at an all-white school, which was simply a couple of blocks down from her house. This court case in my opinion acted like a catalyst for further change for black Americans. In my essay, I will be evaluating the significance of the Supreme Court judgment about Brown v Topeka.
On the 1st of December 1955, Rosa Parks, an African-American woman, was arrested in Montgomery, Alabama for not standing and letting a white bus rider take her seat. It was an "established rule" in the American south that black riders had to sit at the back of the bus. black riders were also expected to give up their seat to a white bus rider if it was needed. When asked to move to let a white bus rider be seated she refused. She did not argue and she did not move.
Losing the Old School: Integration’s Erosion of the Black Educational Community in North Carolina When the Warren Court handed down Brown v. Board of Education in 1954, educational systems nationwide braced for vast change. Integration’s many complexities became apparent as black students faced widespread hostility from their new, white academic communities. As racial enmity took its toll on black students, teachers, and parents, leadership was lost and communities splintered. These incalculable damages are reflected in the experiences and observations of students and educators in North Carolina, where black education once relied on internal cooperation and support. Though the desegregation of schools in North Carolina granted blacks access to better educational resources and wealthier scholastic opportunities, the resultant dilution and erosion of the black educational community devastated its resolve and essential coherence.
During the early 20th century, Jim Crow South had a significant impact on people. Jim Crow laws were rulings that enforced racial segregation in the south from 1877-1954 forcing blacks to live separate from whites; usually in a poor quality society. Jim Crow laws managed and dictated which privileges blacks enjoyed. By law, blacks could not use the same facilities, could not attend the same schools, or could not drink out of the same water fountains as whites. The laws were basically just a list of “could-nots”.