Simulacra & Simulation Essay

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TABLE OF CONTENTS I. The Precession of Simulacra II. History: A Retro Scenario III. Holocaust IV. The China Syndrome V. Apocalypse Now VI. The Beaubourg Effect : Implosion and Deterrence VII. Hypermarked and Hypercommodity VIII. The Implosion of Meaning in the Media IX. Absolute Advertising, Ground-Zero Advertising X. Clone Story XI. Holograms XII. Crash XIII. Simulacra and Science Fiction XIV. The Animals: Territory and Metamorphoses XV. The Remainder XVI. The Spiraling Cadaver XVII. Value's Last Tango XVIII. On Nihilism THE PRECESSION OF SIMULACRA The simulacrum is never what hides the truth - it is truth that hides the fact that there is none. The simulacrum is true. -Ecclesiastes If once we were able to view the Borges fable in which the cartographers of the Empire draw up a map so detailed that it ends up covering the territory exactly (the decline of the Empire witnesses the fraying of this map, little by little, and its fall into ruins, though some shreds are still discernible in the deserts - the metaphysical beauty of this ruined abstraction testifying to a pride equal to the Empire and rotting like a carcass, returning to the substance of the soil, a bit as the double ends by being confused with the real through aging) - as the most beautiful allegory of simulation, this fable has now come full circle for us, and possesses nothing but the discrete charm of second-order simulacra.*1 Today abstraction is no longer that of the map, the double, the mirror, or the concept. Simulation is no longer that of a territory, a referential being, or a substance. It is the generation by models of a real without origin or reality: a hyperreal. The territory no longer precedes the map, nor does it survive it. It is nevertheless the map that precedes the territory - precession of simulacra - that engenders the territory, and if one must return to the fable, today it is

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