Contrast the functionalist and conflict theories of crime. The functionalist would argue that those who transgress are usually dealt with by the law and that order is restored. The conflict theorist would argue that the law enforcement system perpetuates the inequalities and would give the example of how many white-collar crimes go unpunished. Read more: http://www.ehow.com/how_8586125_compare-contrast-functionalist-conflict-theories.html#ixzz2iJlpn5zx Contrast the functionalist and conflict theories of crime. The functionalist would argue that those who transgress are usually dealt with by the law and that order is restored.
Different sociologists have presented different theories and concepts to explain what drives a person to commit a crime, and research and statistics give us an idea of the type of crimes committed and the places that they’re most likely to occur. However, these statistics can prove to be misleading as not all crime is reported to or recorded by the police. This can be referred to as the ‘hidden figure’, and it differentiates between the official crime rate and the real rate. Despite this, they do prove to be worthwhile in the fact that they display trends and patterns of crime. Sociologists use three different methods to measure crime; each method provides us with particular information and as in all systems of data collecting, there are strengths and weaknesses to the method.
Asses the usefulness of labelling as an approach to the study of crime and deviance In the study of crime and deviance, most approaches other than Marxists, suggest that there is a difference between those who offend and those who do not, and search for key factors that lead people to offend. However, there are a group of theorist who reject this idea and instead suggest that most people commit deviant and criminal acts, but only some people are caught and stigmatised for it. Although the labelling theory is quite prominent in the study of crime and deviance, there are endorsers and criticisers who both give valid accounts to why this theory should be, or not be taken as a valid theory. Labelling theory suggests that deviancy is a social process usually related to power differences but it doesn't explain the causes of crime. It does however explain why some people or actions are described as deviant, and can help in understanding crime and deviance.
Cloward and Ohlin's theory differs (as the source states) from Cohen's slightly: They state access to criminal networks shape subculture types. For example criminal subcultures have access to criminal networks (commuting utilitarian crime). Whereas conflict subcultures lack
Discuss the problems involved in defining and measuring crime and deviance. This essay aims to discuss the problems involved in defining crime and deviance and measuring crime. The essay will focus on the similarities of crime and deviance and discuss problems in measuring crime statistic. Crime is defined by an act that breaks the law (oxforddictionary 2013) and deviance is any behaviour that is considered out of the ordinary (oxforddictionary 2013). There are different theories on how crime and deviance are viewed.
Some “Thoughts on the Neurobiology of Stalking ”,“ The Limited role of Neuroimaging in Determining Criminal Liability ”,“ Post-Mortem Forensic Nueroimaging and the fourth one help prove that the said statement is true. Through many extensive tests, examples, discoveries, and research, it is now believed that there are definitely chemical in-balances that exist in criminals that contribute to their actions. This further exemplifies the difference between “cops and robbers”. It seems as though cops and criminals might not be as alike as previous
In this essay we will assess the usefulness of these functionalist theories, and look at how it helps us explain crime. One functionalist who tried to explain crime is Merton and his strain theory, the strain theory argues that people engage in the deviant behaviour when they are unable to achieve socially approved goals by legitimate means. Merton explanation combines 2 elements; structural factors- society’s unequal opportunity structure, cultural factors- strong emphasis to achieve goals and weak emphasis on using legit means. Merton uses the strain theory to explain some patterns of crime in society, he argues a person’s positioning in society affects the way they adapt or respond to the strain to anomie. Merton gives 5 different types of adaption; Conformity- the individual accepts socially acceptable goal and achieves it through legitimate means, Innovation- Individual accepts the role of success and wealth but uses illegitimate means to achieve them, Ritualism- Individual give up on legitimate goals but still follow strictly to the rules, Retreatism- Individuals reject legitimate goals and means of achieving them e.g drug addicts, the final type is Rebellion- Individuals reject existing goals and means but replace them with new one in desire to bring about revolutionary change.
Further, because most hate-crime legislation puts added effort into prosecuting crimes against certain individuals or groups, what about the same crimes committed against someone who doesn't fit into one of those groups? Will the crime be prosecuted to the same extent? If not, you're making things worse for the majority, who are likely to feel underprotected. If the problem is that too many people (of any group) are being mugged, or assaulted, or their belongings vandalized, you should put more effort into prosecuting muggings, assaults, or vandalism. Not to protect any one group, but to protect all
Crime and Justice CJA/204 February 23, 2015 Crime and Justice Crime is a social phenomenon and is defined as any unlawful act by law where society has provided a specific punishment. There are many different acts such as murder, arson, robbery, larceny, motor vehicle theft and burglary. Crime also consists of acts threatening a nation ,practical jokes such as falsely reporting a bomb threat or hate crimes be it religious, gender or racial. These are also described as negatively affected stereotype groups. Negative stereotypes are often resistant to change even in the face of conflicting information (Devine, 1989; Fiske & Neuberg, 1989), and are intimately linked to prejudice and bigotry (Stroebe & Insko, 1989).
It is evident that crime and deviance play an important role in society today and form the “out of ordinary” actions that take place as a subsequence. Crime is a well-known term to many and is believed to involve a breach of rules or laws implemented by authorities that lead to convictions or punishment for those involved in the criminal activity. However; deviance is a term which creates much difficulty in terms of a specific definition, but the closet definition came from two men; Downs and Rock who believed that “deviance may be considered as banned or controlled behaviour which is likely to attract punishment or disapproval”. Haralambos and Holborn Sociology, Themes and Perspectives seventh edition, 2008. This demonstrates that there is some concept of difference between criminal and deviant behaviour.