Alexander Valdiviezo Prof. John Esche HUM 102-001 9/16/2013 “What Galileo Saw” The article “What Galileo Saw” by Michael Benson published in September 8, 2003 by “The New York Times”, describes the obstacles and accomplishments done by the “Galileo” spacecraft. In the past eight years, the spacecraft called “Galileo” was known as the Orbiter who explored the four largest moons of Jupiter. During the time in space, it made detailed scientific observations which took thousands of high resolution photographs. Galileo took the closest photograph, half a billion miles away, of one of Jupiter’s moon. But Galileo’s extensive tour of the satellites of Jupiter ended on September 21 because it was programed to speed directly towards the gaseous atmosphere of Jupiter enabling the spacecraft to turn into ashes.
When Neil Armstrong first touched down on the moon in 1969, millions of people watched him take the first step and create history (Villard). Yet even as we’ve moved on from the moon landings and consider them as a pivotal point for mankind, “Forty years after U.S. astronaut Neil Armstrong became the first human to set foot on the moon, many conspiracy theorists still insist the Apollo 11 moon landing was an elaborate hoax”(Than). The idea that our voyage to the moon was deliberately staged seems to resurface year after year. While the conspiracy theorists claim the moon landing was a hoax, creating a fake moon landing would have been more expensive and difficult than actually reaching the moon. The race to the moon began on October 5, 1957, when the Soviet Union launched Sputnik into orbit around the earth: “When the Soviet Union launched the satellite Sputnik, on October 4, 1957, the United States experienced a technological identity crisis”(Olson).
Telescopes in Astronomy Sharla McNees University of Phoenix Astronomy SCI/151 Dr. Olade July 2, 2012 Telescopes in Astronomy Telescopes have changed the way people view the sky and are allowing scientist to find out more about other planets. This paper will cover how the telescope changed our view of the universe, designs of telescopes and about ground-based and space-based observatories. * How the telescope changed our view of the universe and our place in it * Telescopes opened our eyes to the universe by showing us that Earth is not the center of the universe. Telescopes also show the mountains and craters on the moon and telescopes have exposed characteristics and weather on the planets in our solar system and revealed new planets and asteroids. Telescopes were the first valid measurement of the speed of light (NASA, 2009).
(Strobel, 2007) For example on Mars, through telescopes, scientist can see the mountains and valleys of the planet. They can see what the make up of the land is, and what color are present in the land, help them to determine the composition of the Martian soil. Chemical Composition of Planet Interiors Determining the chemical makeup of planets other than earth is a real challenge to scientist even today. While science has evolved by leaps and bounds in the 20th and 21st centuries, these planets are so far away from us that it is difficult and expensive to study. For many years, what we knew about the other planets was learned from examining them through telescopes.
Galilei rejected the medieval division of the universe into higher and lower realms and proclaimed the modern idea of nature’s uniformity. Galileo then learned of a new device, a telescope, that had been invented in Holland. This device gave scientists and astronomers, the opportunity to view things of distance, such as the moon or Jupiter, as hundreds or even thousands times larger then they appear to the naked eye. After working with the device to make it as useful as possible, he was able to use it to further prove the rejection of the medieval division of the universe. Firstly he spoke of the surface of the moon, “… I have been led to the opinion and conviction that the surface of the moon is not smooth uniform and precisely spherical as a great number of philosophers believe it (and the other heavenly bodies) to be, but is uneven, rough, and full of cavities and prominences, being not unlike the face of the earth, relieved chains of mountains and deep valleys….” While the bible believes that the moon is pure, perfect, and immutable, Galileo was able to prove that there was no difference between the moon and the face of the earth, needless to say, nature was the same throughout.
3,015 acres (12.20 km2) of land surrounding the observatory was donated to the City of Los Angeles by Colonel Griffith J. Griffith on December 16, 1896.  In his will Griffith donated funds to build an observatory, exhibit hall, and planetarium on the donated land. As a Works Progress Administration (WPA) project, construction began on June 20, 1933, using a design developed by architect John C. Austin based on preliminary sketches by Russell W. Porter.  The observatory and accompanying exhibits were opened to the public on May 14, 1935.
It is called an orbiter because it will orbit, or circle, the fourth planet from the sun. Right now, the orbiter is speeding toward Mars. Scientists expect it to reach the Red Planet in March. The orbiter will join two robots, called rovers, that are already there. They have been rolling around on the surface of the planet for more than two years.
Did man ever go to the moon? Was the moon landing in 1969 man kinds’ greatest achievement or was it the most viewed fiction film of the year? I believe that the later statement is true. I wouldn’t consider myself to be a conspiracy theorist but this idea seems perfectly plausible and the evidence supporting my point is quite amazing. I first looked at this argument a few years ago and it caught my eye.
Moon Landing Hoax? Or Real? The quotes, “Houston, Tranquility Base here. The Eagle has landed,” and, “This is one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind,” have echoed throughout the world since the legendary landing of the spacecraft, Apollo 11, on the moon. This expedition alighted astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin on the surface of the moon on July 20th, 1969 which enabled them to collect the first samples from another planetary body (1).
Although rocket pioneer R.H. Goddard and the Peenemunde rocket scientists used inertial sensors for navigation and control of missiles, a complete navigation system using inertial sensors did not emerge until the 1940s under Charles Stark Draper, considered to be “the father of inertial navigation.” C.S. Draper established the Instrumentation Laboratory at MIT as a major player in the early development of inertial navigation. In the 1960s, engineers at MIT designed the inertial navigation system (INS) for sensing and controlling rocket thrusting during trajectory changes of the Apollo spacecraft . The dominant inertial sensor errors for the Moon missions were unpredictable shifts in output biases of the gyroscopes and accelerometers. These