Qin dynasty was the first imperial dynasty of China. During its reign over China, the Qin dynasty achieved increased trade, improved agriculture, and military security. This dynasty also introduced several reforms such as: currency, weights and measures were standardized, and a better system of writing was established. They allowed the construction of ambitious projects, such as a wall on the northern border, now known as the Great Wall of China. The aristocracies of the Qin were largely similar in their culture and daily life.
China and Portugal during the Age of Exploration When the Chinese finally managed to overthrow the Yuan Dynasty during the Middle Ages, foreign interests increased. With the support of Ming Emperor Yung-Lo, China pursued expansion and trade. Zheng-He, a Chinese Muslim, set out to India, Persia and Africa from 1405 to 1433. Around that time, Portugal commenced their expansion voyages. Despite the fact that the Chinese had a larger population, Portugal was the one who went on to become the dominant nation in the Indian Ocean during the Age of Exploration.
The Treaty of Nanjing ceded Hong Kong to Britain, opened fived Chinese ports to trade, installed Britain with most favored nation status, and granted extraterritoriality status to British citizens, which meant they were not subject to Chinese laws. Soon, France, Germany, Denmark, the Netherlands, Spain, Belgium, Austria-Hungary, USA, and Japan had similar terms. Collectively, these treaties legalized the opium trade, permitted the establishment of Christian missions throughout China, and opened additional treaty ports. By 1900, 90 Chinese ports were under the effective control of foreign powers, foreign merchants controlled much of the Chinese economy, Christian missionaries sought converts throughout China, and foreign gunboats patrolled Chinese waters. Several treaties also released Korea, Vietnam, and Burma from Chinese authority and therefore dismantled the Chinese system of tributary
A unified, powerful state was created in India by the British vanquishing kingdoms of the India and placing the same general system of laws amongst the Hindu and the Muslim peoples. The perspectives of the Indian peoples became more worldly and educated. Another example of a postive change in perspective that resulted from imperialism is Japan. Prior to 1867, Japan was humiliated by America’s intrusion. The radical samuri reacted to the invasion with violence until the samuri created a patriotic coalition that restored the emporer’s power with minimal bloodshed.
Buddhism is a major religion, playing a large part in Chinese history. It was founded in the sixth century B.C.E. by the Buddha, and once brought to China in the first century B.C.E. was very popular (historical background). Many people converted from the main philosophical system at the time, Confucianism, to Buddhism.
Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire during the rule of emperor Constantine. In China, however, Buddhism became extremely popular as it spread through the Silk Road from India. However, there is one striking similarity with respect to belief systems in the two empires. Both believed in a strong force from nature. While both Christianity and Buddhism focus on otherworldly beings and places, the societies of the two empires often looked inward towards nature and it’s impact on the world.
------------------------------------------------- The Zhou Dynasty expanded the territory of China by taking over the Yangtze River valley, this is also known as the “Middle Kingdom”. They also introduced the Mandate of Heaven, Mandarin, and they were the first to use Confucianism in their
Henceforth, revealing a true motive of banishment of gentry influence and extracting their historical imprint from the arts. With the removal of Hongwu Emperor to his successor Yongle Emperor (1402-1424) the imperial capital relocated from Suzhou to Beijing, creating a huge distance from its stifling and overshadowing imperial influence as well. Shen Zhou had grown accustomed, apparently, to the life of an artist in observance of his father (WIW, 2012) Shen Hengji (1409-1477) who was a painters as several other family members, such as an uncle, and grandfather Shen Cheng, who hailed as a famous collector in Suzhou.
After the fall of the Han Empire there was a vacuum of political instability. In less than forty years the Sui rulers reunified China. They reestablished Confucianism as the central philosophy of government. The Sui period is also distinctive because of the strong political influence of Buddhism. The accomplishments of the Sui Empire were the 1,100 mile Grand Canal that linked the Yellow River in Northern China with the Yangzi River in Southern China.
The concept of Bushido (武士道) was developed between the 9th and 12th centuries, it was born from a mix of Neo Confucianism and Zen Buddhism which obviously was absorbed during the invasion of Korea. Bushido (武士道) in turn heavily influenced Japans Feudal patriarchal hierarchy under the rule of Tokugawa Shogunate when aspects of Bushido (武士道) became formalized into Japanese Feudal Law. Buddhist