Sexuality is considered one of the most powerful tools of marketing and particularly advertising. The use sexual outcome by advertisers is a reason for the use of brands and the ability of sexual information to influence brand perceptions. Sexual information in mediated promotional messages, has maintained a presence since advertising's beginning. Sex in advertising has been the motivation for increased consumer interest and sales. In contemporary mainstream consumer advertising on magazines, network and cable television, sex is present in promotional messages for a wide range of branded goods.
Sexual content in advertisements began by targeting mostly men in their tobacco advertisements. Marketers soon turned their attention to advertising towards women as well. In the late 1800s, brands began using sex and nudity in advertisements to sell corsets and leers. In the early 1900s, brands also used the sex appeal to attract women to buy soaps and lotions. This same marketing strategy was used through the 1950’s and 60’s.
Most criminal justice agents are men – and men are socialised to act in a chivalrous way. By doing so, they may be more likely to let women get away with crimes they may have committed. Pollak (1950) argues that men hate to accuse women and put them through the justice system. He suggests that the system is much more lenient with women therefore their crimes are less likely than men’s to end up on official statistics. If this was true, it would mean women are underrepresented and the real extent of male crime is exaggerated.
Let’s Understand Each Other Better The article "Sex, lies, and Conversation," written by the professor of linguistics Deborah Tannen, explains us about the many dissimilarities amongst men and women that occur in the way they communicate with each other. It explains to the reader why there is a lack of communication and understanding between a man and a woman who aim to pursue different objectives through conversations. The article is a very effective passage that provides logical reasoning to support its claim of developing cross cultural understanding in order to avoid the clash of genders that is caused by failed conversations. Most of the women complain that men are not good conversational partners at home. According to the females, men do not listen or talk to them and do not contribute in day to day discussions.
For example, there are many cases in the first several stories of Arabian Nights when women are disloyal and evil, but there are also stories about the wrong of men. This is because Shahrazad wanted to balance human wrong and she attempts to expose the wrongs of both sexes equally. According to feminism, the women's and men's rights are equal. So, she tried to explain that women can also make mistakes as men and it is not right that they take into account only women's mistakes (Smith, 1).
Advertising media adversely impacts women's body image, which can lead to unhealthy behavior as women and girls strive for the ultra-thin body idealized by the media. Advertising images have also set unrealistic ideals for males, and men and boys are beginning to risk their health to achieve the well-built media standard. “The Empire of Images in Our World of Bodies,” Susan Bordo seeks to disrupt the unrelenting invasion of unhealthy and unrealistic beauty standards that hold sway in a media driven society. By using real life examples like how Susan Sarandon looks younger today than she did twenty years ago and how little girls are “vamping up”, Bordo emphasizes how the media saturates our environment with Hollywood standards of female beauty that dictate personal identity. Bordo demonstrates that women of all ages are strongly affected by the media; as such, women may feel pressure to attain and maintain a thin youthful figure and may endure surgical and cosmetic procedures or starvation to obtain it.
The type of things that are associated with prevalence of sexual harassment are gender, marital status and ethnic background. They also believe that educated women as opposed to men are more likely to view a situation as sexual misconduct. The article has two hypotheses, ones begin that men who work in women’s traditional job are less able to determine the situation as a sexual harassment. Men who work in traditional jobs are much more aware of sexual harassment and would make judgments to say they see it in the workplace often. Sex Role spill over theory and contact theory shows females in men traditional jobs have a big chance of getting harassed if there are more men then women their contact will probably end up in some kind of sexual harassment and because of this more women witness their co-workers making reports of harassment.
Does sex in ads principly enhance or hinder advertising processing? Another research by Tom Reichert (2012) talks about how sex shifts the attention from the main product or service. But a question arises that are people more inclined to remember sexual details more than non-sexual ones? 1.3
When comparing Julia Roberts' cover to Blake Shelton's it becomes apparent how there is a double-standard when it comes to how the media portrays men and women. Other ads and magazines, as well as other forms of media, have shown throughout the history to repeat the same unrealistic beauty standard, focusing on perfection rather than realistic women and their true selves. Further, it demonstrates how women are not allowed to be sexy once they reach a certain age, while men become sexier with age and often are praised for signs of aging, such as grey hair. Magazines such as these can lead to self-esteem issues in women, particularly young girls who look at forms of media to get a sense of societal expectations. In order to fix this issue, magazines need to be cognizant of how their images and portrayals of women and men can impact people's images of themselves and others.
Fantasies for men are more from memory and based on past or present sexual encounters. (The Journal of Psychology124 (4) pg 427) More specifically women fantasizes have been shown to contain themes of passivity, narcissism and sadomasochism. (Wilson & Lang, 1981; Porto & Couture, 1977; Wilson & Lang, 1981). Men fantasizes are characterized as more active, aggressive and impersonal. Men have fantasizes to have sex with numerous persons, which is not preferred by most women in their fantasies.