Firstly, whether a family live in a symmetrical family or not will have an effect on the divisions of labour. March of Progress theorists (Liberal Feminists) such as Young and Willmott argue that family life is gradually improving for all its members, becoming more equal and democratic. For example, women now go out to work, just as men now help with housework and childcare. However Radical Feminists reject the ‘March of Progress’ theory, and argue that women remain unequal within the family. Anne Oakley argues that we still live in a patriarchal (male dominated) society, and therefore women occupy a subordinate and dependant role within the family and wider society.
“Appropriation study of texts is interesting because the changing values and attitudes of particular time periods can be observed.” Evaluate this opinion in relation to the Jane Austen’s novel, Emma, and Amy Heckerling’s film, Clueless. In your response make detailed references to both texts. 3. In comparing your TWO texts you will have become aware of how the contexts of the texts have shaped their form and meaning. Of more interest, perhaps, is a comparison of the values associated with each text.
How has the study of Emma and its appropriate clueless developed your understanding of how context influenced values? -Select at least 2 significant moments of Austen’s Emma and analyse how these moments are considered in order to create meaning in Heckerling’s Clueless. In your response focus on ideas, context, values and language. Heckerling’s Clueless (1995) is transformed through Austen’s 19th Century novel, Emma, where the plot and characters have been transformed to suit Heckerling’s context and contemporary audience. Despite the shift in context from 19th century England to late 20th century Beverly Hills, Austen’s main plot and ideas have been retained to a great degree.
In comparison Fay Weldon’s Letters to Alice, written a few centuries after, shows a clear link of how particular concerns, held by society, have altered. A women living in the late 1800’s had very few rights and freedoms. Education was a thing men and if a women engaged in such activities she was at risk of being shunned by society or “left on the shelf.” Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice follows a young girl, Elizabeth Bennet, who struggles against society’s expectations. Being a smart and well educated women, she is somewhat frowned upon, however this has been disguised by Austen through her dialogue. An example is seen near the beginning of the book in which Mr Darcey and Mr Binley’s brother are engaged in polite conversation.
brontë studies, Vol. 37 No. 3, September 2012, 174–89 ‘Give me my name’: Naming and Identity In and Around Jane Eyre Steven Earnshaw The article discusses the importance of names, naming and identity in connection with Jane Eyre. A focus on the framing provided by the title page is the basis for insights into the importance ‘names and naming’ has for our interpretation of the novel, leading to discussion of how these elements are innovatively handled in a mid-nineteenth-century context. Such an apprehension of what a name is (or is perceived to be) becomes key to our understanding of Jane’s and the novel’s sense of self and identity.
Lee uses the code established by the society of Maycomb, both in the courthouse and in every day treatment of one another to reveal this unique perspective. Sadly, societies version of code of honor differs greatly from the individual and family codes of honor. This is because code of honor has the greatest power in society where it often undermines logic. Societal code of honor is based mostly upon social ranking. In the novel, each family has a specific place, the Finches being one of the more prestigious families, and the Ewells the lowest.
Transformations: How has your perceptions of transformations been illuminated by your comparative study of the prescribed texts? The responder’s understanding of transformations has been illuminated by a comparative study of Jane Austen’s ‘Emma’ and Amy Heckerling’s ‘Clueless’. The word transformation refers to the change of form or appearance. In order for Heckerling to transform Emma she needed to change the context of Austen’s 19th Century, English novel ‘Emma’ to better fit her 20th Century American film, ‘Clueless’. Marriage, charity, wealth, owning a home and even the means of transportation are all things seen and acted upon differently in a more modern context.
The process of transformation entails adapting a text to a contemporary contextual environment in order to make it appeal to modern consciousness. By comparing both Jane Austen’s “Emma” and Amy Heckerling’s “Clueless” it is apparent that the film has been re-appropriated in such a way that Austen’s voice is still heard today while, simultaneously projecting Heckerling’s views on contemporary society. Clueless, Amy Heckerling’s 1995 re-contextualisation of Jane Austen’s Emma replicates Austen’s ironic commentary on the necessity of entering into a relationship that will not challenge status quo. Though Heckerling transforms a 200 year old story to suit modern audiences through a reinvention of the key characters, context, language and form,
A new breed of middle and upper class where fighting their way into the limelight, and seeking to be social accepted. “Marxist Terry Eagleton posits a complex and contradictory relationship between the landed gentry and aristocracy, the traditional power-holders, and the capitalist, industrial middle classes, who were pushing for social acceptance and political power. Simultaneously with the struggle among these groups, an accommodation was developing based on economic interests”. Both writers came from middle class families although Charles Dickens did suffer hardship for a short period of time. Dickens and Bronte both have expressed their views on class segregation and the effect that it has on people.